TABLE 3.

Biochemical reactions of 48 strains in the API20E system, the Biotype 100 system, and conventional testsa

Test% Positive isolates (cumulative)b
E. hormaechei subsp. oharae (n = 15)E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei (n = 6)E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii (n = 27)
48 h7 days48 h7 days48 h7 days
Voges-Proskauer (37°C)c100100100
Voges-Proskauer (37°C)d100100100
Motility in SIM-agar at 37°Cd908388
Growth in KCNd3040671938
Mucate acid productiond1001008996
β-Galactosidase (ONPG)c100100100
Arginine dihydrolasec100100100
Arginine dihydrolased100100100
Ornithine decarboxylasec100100100
Ornithine decarboxylased100100100
Lysine decarboxylasec000
H2S productionc000
Urease (API20E and broth)c000
Urease (Christensen's agar)d1008310081
Indole productionc000
Citratec100100100
Citrate (Simmons agar)d100100100
Gelatinasec000
Esculine hydrolysationd027007
α-Methyl-d-gycoside, acid productiond809010077100
Growth on substrates
    1-0-Methyl-α-d-glucopyranoside5310010052100
    1-0-Methyl-α-galactopyranoside931000093100
    1-0-Methyl-β-d-glucopyranoside93100100100
    1-0-Methyl-β-galactopyranoside931001008593
    3-0-Methyl-d-glucopyranose07678993
    3-Hydroxybutyrate000000
    5-Keto-d-gluconate001700
    α-d-Fucose46507580
    α-d-Fucose (acid from)d505079
    α-d-Melibiose10017100
    α-d-Melibiose (acid from)d10050100
    Adonitol131793
    Adonitol (acid from)d00100
    α-Ketoglutarate071735726
    α-Lactose8010050676389
    α-l-Fucose677310096100
    α-l-Fucose (acid from)d305098
    α-l-Rhamnose93100100
    α-l-Rhamnose (acid from)d100100100
    β-d-Fructose100100100
    β-Gentiobiose100100100
    Caprate000000
    Caprylate000000
    cis-Aconitate1006783100
    d(−)-Ribose100100100
    d(−)-Tartrate0001700
    d(+)-Arabitol71796
    d(+)-Cellobiose100100100
    d(+)-Galactose100100100
    d(+)-Malate0700715
    d(+)-Mannose100100100
    d(+)-Trehalose100100100
    d(+)-Turanose2717019
    d(+)-Xylose93100100100
    d-Galacturonate10010096
    d-Glucosamine10010096100
    d-Glucose100100100
    d-Glucuronate10010096100
    dl-Glycerate0003300
    d-Lyxose93678993
    d-Mannitol100100100
    d-Saccharate871008993
    d-Sorbitol87931796
    d-Tagatose070000
    Dulcitol0010004
    Fumarate100100100
    Glycerol100100100
    i-Erythritol7170
    l(+)-Arabinose100100100
    l(+)-Tartrate000000
    Lactulose4753333741
    l-Alanine100100100
    Malonate013017019
    Maltitol801001006793
    Maltose100100100
    meso-Tartrate001700
    myo-Inositol7200715
    Palatinose10010096
    Phenylacetate1001007893
    Protocatechuate000004
    Putrescine000004
    Raffinose935096
    Succinate10010096100
    Sucrose93100100
    trans-Aconitate1006783100
    Xylitol07002263
  • a The following tests were 100% positive for all strains analyzed at 24 h: growth on 4-aminobutyrate, 5-aminovalerate, l(−)-arabitol, benzoate, betain, m-coumarate, ethanolamine, gentisate, glutarate, histamine, l-histidine, m-hydroxybenzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyquinoline-b-glucuronide, itaconate, d(+)-melezitose, 3-phenylpropionate, propionate, (−)quinate, l(+)-sorbose, l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, tricaballylate, trigonelline, tryptamine, and xylotol. The following tests were 100% negative for all strains analyzed at 24 h: growth on d-alanine, l-aspartate, d-gluconat, l-glutamate, 2-keto-d-gluconate, dl-lactate, l(−)-malate, maltotriose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, l-proline, and l-serine. If not otherwise stated, the Biotype 100 system was used.

  • b A blank space indicates that the test was not read or that the results did not change at this time period.

  • c API20E system.

  • d Conventional test.