TABLE 1.

Characteristics of the most frequent MRSA clones isolated in Francea

Characteristic or parameterLyon cloneGeraldine ClonePediatric cloneEuropean ST80 clone
“Classical” subtype“New” subtype
No. of isolates (%)77 (69.4)7 (6.3)9 (8.1)8 (7.2)4 (3.6)
No. of health care-associated isolates (%)47 (61)4 (57)6 (66)6 (75)3 (75)
No. of hospitals (out of 23)226553
Molecular characteristics
    agr allelic group12223
    ST855580
    Clonal complex ST855580
    spa typet008 and relatedt002 and relatedt002 and relatedt777t044
    SCCmec typeIV (n = 70) or IVvariant (n = 7)ItruncatedIVVIIV
        mec complexBABBB
        ccr allotypeAB2 with or without AB4 (n = 5) or C (n = 2)AB1AB2AB4AB2
    Toxin genes
        Always positivetst, sec, sed, sel, sem, seo, serbsem, seosed, sem, seo, serluk-PV, etd, edin
        Always negativeseb, sec, seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, tst, eta, etb, etd, luk-PV, lukM, edinsea, seb, seh, sek, sel, sep, eta, etb, etd, luk-PV, lukM, edin, hlbsea, sec, seh, sek, seq, tst, eta, etb, etd, luk-PV, lukM, edinsea, seb, sec, sek, sel, eta, etb, luk-PV, lukM, edinsea, seb, sec, sed, seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep, seq, tst, eta, etb, lukM, edin
        Variably positive (%)sea (86), sed (49), ser (49), hlb (13)seb (22), sed (66), sep (44), ser (66), hlb (11)sep (87), hlb (25)
Susceptibility pattern
    Always resistantPen, Met, FlqPen, Met, FusPen, Met, FlqPen, Met, FlqPen, Met, Kan, Fus
    Variably resistant (% resistant)Kan (75.3), Tob (75.3), Gen (2.6), Ery (50.6), Lin (53.2), Pri (7.8), Rif (1.3), Fos (9.1), Fus (9.1), Sxt (96.1)Kan (28), Tob (28), Ery (14)Kan(33), Tob (33), Ery (11)Ery (12), Lin (12)Ery (25)
    Always susceptibleTec, VanGen, Flq, Lin, Pri, Rif, Fos, Sxt, Tec, VanGen, Lin, Pri, Fus, Rif, Fos, Sxt, Tec, VanKan, Tob, Gen, Pri, Fus, Rif, Fos, Sxt, Tec, VanTob, Gen, Flq, Lin, Pri, Rif, Fos, Sxt, Tec, Van
  • a spa, staphylococcal protein A; ccr, cassette chromosome recombinase; tst, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 gene; luk, staphylococcal leukocidin; hlb, beta-hemolysin; edin, epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor; eta, exfoliatin A; etb, exfoliatin B; etd, exfoliatin D; Pen, penicillin; Met, methicillin; Kan, kanamycin; Tob, tobramycin; Gen, gentamicin; Ery, erythromycin; Lin, lincomycin; Pri, pristinamycin; Rif, rifampin; Fos, fosfomycin; Van, vancomycin; Tec, teicoplanin; Sxt, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; Fus, fusidic acid; Flq, fluoroquinolone.

  • b One Geraldine clone isolate was negative for tst, sec, and sel.