TABLE 1.

Summary of the 755 C. diphtheriae isolates analyzed by ribotyping

CountryNo. of isolatesYr of isolationBiotype(s) (toxigenicitya)Ribotype(s) (no. of isolates)b
Armeniac191999Gravis (18 tox+), mitis (1 tox+)D1 (11), D4 (7), D7 (1)
Australia321992-1995Gravis (17 tox−), mitis (1 tox+, 2 tox−)D9 (18), D15 (1), D46 (1), D47 (1), D48 (2), D49 (1), D50 (1), D51 (3), D52 (1), D56 (2), D57 (1)
Belarusc791996-2000Gravis (48 tox+, 12 tox−), mitis (16 tox+, 3 tox−)D1 (13), D4 (26), D5 (1), D6 (2), D7 (7), D10 (25), D15 (1), D19 (2), D30 (1), D40 (1)
Denmark1Mitis (tox+)D74 (1)
Dominican Republic31995Mitis (3 tox+)D71 (2), D72 (1)
Estoniad261993-1995Gravis (13 tox+, 11 tox −), mitis (1 tox+, 1 tox −)D1 (12), D4 (10), D5 (1), D7 (1), D10 (2)
Finlandd61993-1995Gravis (4 tox+), mitis (1 tox+, 1 tox−)D1 (4), D10 (2)
France11993Mitis (tox−)D46 (1)
Germany241993-1994Gravis (4 tox+, 9 tox−), mitis (3 tox+, 9 tox−), belfanti (3 tox−)D1 (3), D4 (1), D11 (8), D13 (1), D14 (3), D15 (3), D16 (1), D17 (1), D18 (1), D26 (2)
Italy61994-1996Gravis (1 tox+, 4 tox−), mitis (1tox+)D11 (4), D45 (1), D73 (1)
Kazakhstanc431995-1997Gravis (39 tox+), mitis (5 tox+)D1 (7), D4 (32), D7 (4)
Kenya11998Mitis (1 tox+)D62 (1)
Kyrghyzstanc41993-1995Gravis (1 tox+), mitis (1 tox−)D1 (1), D7 (3)
Latviac1151999-2000Gravis (105 tox+, 1 tox−), mitis (7 tox+, 2 tox−)D1 (50), D4 (61), D10 (4)
Poland11994Intermedius (tox+)D54 (1)
Romania171994Gravis (2 tox+, 6 tox−), mitis (5 tox+, 1 tox−), belfanti (1 tox−), intermedius (1 tox−)D11 (6), D20 (1), D21 (6), D22 (1), D23 (1), D24 (1), D25 (1)
Ruanda21994Mitis (tox−)D54 (1), D55 (1)
Russiac2181966, 1993-95Gravis (148 tox+, 7 tox−), mitis (63 tox+, 8 tox−)D1 (81), D2 (1), D3 (2), D4 (56), D5 (1), D6 (3), D7 (56), D8 (1), D9 (3), D10 (11), D11 (2), D12 (1)
Swedene131994Gravis (2 tox−), mitis (6 tox+, 3tox−), belfanti (2 tox−)D4 (1), D11 (1), D17 (1), D22 (1), D26 (6), D27 (1), D28 (1), D29 (1)
Thailandf311994-1996Gravis (1 tox−), mitis (27 tox+, 3 tox+)D19 (1), D34 (13), D63 (2), D64 (6), D65 (2), D66 (3), D67 (1), D68 (1), D69 (1), D70 (1)
Turkmenistanc251995Gravis (17 tox+, 4 tox−), mitis (3 tox+, 1 tox−)D1 (2), D4 (18), D7 (3), D10 (2)
United Kingdomg221985-1998Gravis (3 tox+), mitis (17 tox+, 2 tox−)D1 (1), D7 (1) D30 (1), D31 (1), D32 (2), D33 (1), D34 (1), D35 (1), D36 (1), D37 (1), D38 (1), D39 (1), D40 (4), D41 (1), D42 (2), D43 (1), D44 (1)
Ukrainec191999Gravis (19 tox+)D1 (19)
Uzbekistanc111995Gravis (3 tox+, 2 tox−), mitis (6 tox+)D1 (3), D7 (1), D10 (2), D15 (1), D19 (4)
United Statesh231972-82, 1995Gravis (8 tox+, 3 tox−), mitis (6 tox−), intermedius (2 tox+, 3 tox−)D4 (1), D13 (3), D50 (3), D57 (5), D58 (8), D59 (3)
Vietnam131995Mitis (13 tox+)D9 (1), D60 (3), D61 (9)
  • a The numbers of isolate that are toxin positive (tox+) and toxin negative (tox−) are given in parentheses.

  • b International designations for some of the predominant ribotypes are as follows: D1, Sankt Petersburg; D7, Otchakov; D11, Vladimir; D4, Rossija; D10, Cluj.

  • c The majority of the isolates are from the epidemic which began in the Russian Federation in 1990.

  • d Imported cases of diphtheria from the NIS.

  • e Isolates from the Scandinavian outbreak, which occurred in the mid-1980s.

  • f Isolates from the outbreak in Thailand in 1994.

  • g The majority of the isolates are from imported cases of diphtheria from Asia, Africa, and the Far East.

  • h Isolates from the outbreak in Seattle, WA (1971 to 1982).