TABLE 2.

Shell-vial culture protocols used in our laboratory according to the presumptive diagnosis

ProtocolaSampleCell typebMediumcDetection day(s)Detection methodd
Rickettsia sp.Skin biopsy, heparinized blood, tick hemolymph, liceHELMEM, 10% FCS, 2 mM l-glutamine/liter7-14Gimenez, IF
L929MEM, 4% FCS, 2 mM l-glutamine/liter
Bartonella sp.Heparinized blood, cardiac valve, lymph node, bone marrow, skin biopsyECV304RMPI, 15% FCS, 2 mM l-glutamine/liter with human blood15-30-45Gimenez, IF
C. burnetiiHeparinized blood, cardiac valve, lymph node, skin biopsy, lung biopsy, bone marrowHELMEM, 10% FCS, 2 mM l-glutamine/liter10-20Gimenez, IF
T. whippleiHeparinized blood, cardiac valve, duodenal biopsy, lymph node, aquous humor, CSF, brain biopsyHELMEM, 10% FCS, 2 mM l-glutamine/literEach 15 days for 180 daysGimenez, IF
JNSPHeparinized blood, all types of biopsyECV304RMPI, 15% FCS, 4 mM l-glutamine/liter21Gimenez, IF
HEL
  • a Protocols (type of cell used, length of incubation, and culture revelation) were different according to the required bacteria.

  • b HEL, human embryonic lung fibroblast; L929, mouse fibroblast; ECV, human endothelial cell; HL60, human promyelocytics leukemia; DH 82, dog macrophages.

  • c All media used are antibiotic free.

  • d IF, immunofluorescence.