TABLE 5.

Characteristics of 27 microorganisms only isolated in the shell-vial culture by the JNSP protocol for which axenic cultures were negativea

SampleResult by:Strain establishment in axenic medium
PCR before sample cultureAxenic cultureCell culture detection at day 21
Articular fluidNegativeNegativeStaphylococus aureusYes
Vertebral biopsyS. aureusNegativeStaphylococcus aureusNP
CSFNegativeNegativeGemella sanguinisYes
Articular fluidStreptococcus BNegativeStreptococcus BYes
Cardiac valveStreptococcus BNegativeStreptococcus BNP
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeStreptococcus pneumoniaeNo
Cardiac valveStreptococcus sanguisNegativeStreptococcus sanguisNP
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeStreptococcus sp.Yes
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeGranulicatella adiacensYes
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeActinomyces sp.Yes
Aqueous humorNegativeNegativeChryseomonas luteolaYes
AbscessNegativeNegativeNocardia asteroidesYes
Skin biopsyStaphylococcus epidermidisNegativeStaphylococcus epidermidisYes
Liver biopsyBrucella melitensisNegativeBrucella melitensisNo
Cardiac valveNPNegativeTropheryma whippleiYes
Blood sampleNegativeNegativeTropheryma whippleiYes
Digestive biopsyTropheryma whippleiNegativeTropheryma whippleiYes
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeFrancisella tularensisNo
Skin biopsyFrancisella tularensisNegativeFrancisella tularensisYes
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeChlamydia trachomatisNo
Lung biopsyNegativeNegativeLegionella pneumophilaYes
Bone pusMycoplasma pneumoniaeNegativeMycoplasma pneumoniaeNo
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeMycobacterium aviumYes
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeMycobacterium tuberculosisYes
Articular fluidNegativeNegativeMycobacterium tuberculosisYes
Skin biopsyNegativeNegativeMycobacterium tuberculosisNP
Lymph nodeNegativeNegativeMycobacterium tuberculosisNP
Lymph nodeMycobacterium spp.NegativeMycobacterium lentiflavumNo
  • a From August 1991 to September 2003, using the JNSP shell-vial protocol, we isolated 27 microorganisms for which the standard axenic culture was negative. These bacteria include fastidious, nonfastidious, and noncultivable bacteria. Presented for each microorganism are the results of 16S rRNA PCR, culture, and strain establishment in axenic medium.

  • b NP, not performed.