TABLE 2.

Distribution of virulence-associated traits by source group among 329 Escherichia coli isolates from women with cystitis or pyelonephritis and uninfected women

TraitaPrevalence of trait (no. [%]) among isolate group (n):P valueb
Total (329)Fecal (76)Cystitis (83)Pyeloc (170)Fecal vs cystitis isolatesFecal vs pyelo isolatesCystitis vs pyelo isolates
papA/C/EF/G178-180 (54)28 (37)34-35 (41-42)116-117 (68-69)<0.001<0.001
papG allele II141 (43)19 (25)20 (24)102 (60)<0.001<0.001
papG alleles II + III20 (6)3 (4)1 (1)16 (9)0.01
focG 41 (12)4 (5)4 (5)33 (19)0.0030.002
afa/draBC40 (12)4 (5)7 (8)29 (17)0.01
iha 132 (40)13 (17)22 (27)97 (57)<0.001<0.001
fimH 318 (97)70 (92)80 (96)168 (99)0.01
hlyD 104 (32)15 (20)23 (28)66 (39)0.003
cdtB 28 (9)4 (5)2 (2)22 (13)0.006
fyuA 256 (78)51 (67)57 (69)148 (87)<0.0010.001
iutA 151 (46)20 (26)24 (29)107 (63)<0.001<0.001
kpsM II259 (79)53 (70)59 (71)147 (86)0.0030.005
K1 kpsM104 (32)37 (49)24 (29)43 (25)0.01<0.001
traT 218 (66)45 (59)49 (59)124 (73)0.040.03
ibeA 43 (13)7 (9)18 (22)18 (11)0.0480.02
ompT 250 (76)52 (68)58 (70)140 (82)0.020.03
malX 212 (64)46 (61)38 (46)128 (75)0.02<0.001
ExPEC178 (54)28 (37)34 (41)116 (69)<0.001<0.001
  • a Traits shown are those that yielded a P value of <0.05 in both the initial screen for heterogeneity among groups and at least one pairwise comparison, including afa/dra (Dr-binding adhesins), cdtB (cytolethal distending toxin), ExPEC (defined as presence of ≥2 of papA and/or papC, afa/dra, sfa/foc, kpsM II, and iutA), fimH (type 1 fimbriae), focG (F1C fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin siderophore system), hlyD (hemolysin), ibeA (invasion of brain endothelium), iha (adhesin siderophore), iutA (aerobactin system), kpsM II (group 2 capsule), K1 (K1 kpsM II variant), malX (pathogenicity island marker), ompT (outer membrane protease T), papA/C/EF/G (P fimbriae structural subunit, assembly, tip pilins, and adhesin), papG alleles II and III (P adhesin variants), and traT (serum resistance associated). Traits detected in ≥1 isolate each, but not significantly distributed by source group, include (the percentage of the total [n = 329] number of isolates is indicated in parentheses) cnf1 (cytotoxic-necrotizing factor 1; 22%), cvaC (colicin [microcin] V; 3%), gafD (G fimbriae; 0.6%), iroN (siderophore receptor; 31%), iss (increased serum survival; 4%), K2 kpsM variant (4%), kpsM III (group 3 capsule; 2%), rfc (O4 lipopolysaccharide synthesis; 2%), sfa/foc (S and F1C fimbriae; 24%), and sfaS (S fimbriae adhesin; 9%). papG allele I and bmaE were not detected in any isolate.

  • b P values (by Fisher's exact test) are shown where P is <0.05.

  • c Pyelo, pyelonephritis.