Table 1.

Electronic microscopy, viral culture, real-time PCR, and E. coli culture results for 2006-2008 “viral” stool samples in Alberta and northern territories of Canada

Yr (no. of samples)Median patient age (yr) (interquartile range) for all included samplesNo. of samples positive/total no. tested (% positive) for:Median patient age (yr) (interquartile range) for Stx-positive samples)Types of stx genes (n)No. culture positive on nonselective and/or selective solid medium/total no. Stx positive (%)
Enteric virus, tested by EMaNorovirusVirus, tested by viral culturebEnteric bacteria, tested by enteric culturecStx, tested by real-time PCR
2006 (960)11 (1.2–60)d46/855 (5.4)e45/86 (52.3)f6/61 (9.8)g6/189 (3.2)g10/960 (1.0)f6.5 (4.8–58)hstx1 (5), stx2 (1), stx1 and stx2 (4)0/10 (0)i
2007 (712)7 (1.1–49)d43/666 (6.5)e18/52 (34.6)f1/47 (2.1)g6/140 (4.3)g16/712 (2.3)f2.5 (1.4–52)hstx1 (11), stx2 (2), stx1 and stx2 (3)6/16 (38)i
2008 (1,053)19 (1.4–54)d35/1018 (3.4)e17/45 (37.8)f0/22 (0)g2/108 (1/9)g12/1053 (1.1)f10 (1.4–22)hstx1 (7), stx2 (1), stx1 and stx2 (4)9/12 (75)i
Total (2,725)12.5 (1.2–55)124/2539 (4.9)80/183 (37.8)7/130 (5.4)14/437 (3.2)38/2725 (1.4)10 (1.8–50)stx1 (23), stx2 (4), stx1 and stx2 (11)15/38 (39.5)
  • a Enteric viruses detected by electron microscopy (EM) in the different years: 2006, 5 adenovirus and 41 rotavirus; 2007, 3 adenovirus, 39 rotavirus, and 1 small round structured virus; 2008, 8 adenovirus, 25 rotavirus, and 2 small round structured virus.

  • b Viruses isolated by culture in the different years: 2006, 1 adenovirus and 5 enterovirus; 2007, 1 enterovirus.

  • c Bacteria isolated by enteric culture in the different years: 2006, 2 Campylobacter jejuni, 2 Clostridium perfringens, 1 Aeromonas caviae, and 1 Salmonella Poona; 2007, 3 Salmonella Typhimurium, 1 Salmonella Hadar, 1 Aeromonas caviae, and 1 Campylobacter jejuni; 2008, 1 Aeromonas caviae and 1 Plesiomonas shigelloides.

  • d P < 0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • e P < 0.05 by chi-square test.

  • f Not significant by chi-square test.

  • g Not significant by Fisher exact test.

  • h Not significant by Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • i P < 0.05 by Fisher exact test.