TABLE 2.

Diagnostic yields of the different techniques according the type of pneumonia

SpecimenYielda for indicated type of:Global diagnostic yieldd
Bacterial pneumoniaFungal pneumoniaMycobacteriosisViral pneumonia, ASb
ASbOScASbOScASbOSc
BAS23/35 (66)
    Culture12/15 (80)11/12 (92)10/11 (91)e10/11 (91)1/11/1
    Gram stain11/15 (73)11/12 (92)9/11 (82)e9/11 (82)
    Ziehl-Neelsen stain1/11/1
BAL70/134 (52)
    Culture11/18 (61)7/7 (100)7/12 (58)e6/8 (75)7/8 (87)2/2 (100)14/15 (93)
    Gram stain8/18 (44)5/7 (71)2/12 (17)e2/8 (25)
    Ziehl-Neelsen stain3/8 (37.5)2/2 (100)
    GMS stain22/22 (100)f10/10 (100)
    Viral Ag detection9/17 (53)
Sputum38/187 (20)
    Culture20/35 (57)20/21 (95)g5/14 (36)e5/13 (38)13/15 (87)13/14 (93)
    Ziehl-Neelsen stain9/15 (60)9/14 (64)
PSB14/110 (12)
    Culture8/13 (61)4/4 (100)6/12 (50)e3/4 (75)
    Gram stain5/13 (38)4/4 (100)1/12 (8)e1/4 (25)
Pleural fluid culture0/30/30/11e0/111/11 (9)1/11 (9)1/11 (9)
Blood culture15/42 (36)15/42 (36)2/16 (13)e2/16 (13)17/208 (8)
NPW3/47 (6)
    Culture3/10 (30)
    Viral Ag detection1/10 (10)
Bacterial serology0/50/50/35
Viral serology1/2 (50)1/20 (5)
Induced-sputum GMS stain1/8 (12)f1/4 (25)1/56 (2)
L. pneumophila Ag urine0/280/280/151
  • a Total number of diagnoses (diagnoses of pneumonia etiology)/total number of specimens fulfilling the criteria for AS or OS (the specimens included in each classification are described in footnotes b and c, respectively. Percentages are in parentheses.

  • b All specimens (AS) from patients with the indicated diagnoses are included.

  • c Specimens not fulfilling the criteria for optimum specimen (OS) quality are excluded.

  • d Total number of diagnoses (including both infectious- and noninfectious-agent etiologies)/total number of specimens collected.

  • e Cases of filamentous fungi and yeasts.

  • f Cases of P. carinii.

  • g P < 0.05.