TABLE 1.

Newer or rare Corynebacterium species in Canadaa

Taxon (no. of strains if >1)NML strain no. (GenBank accession no.)Clinical and geographic source(s)API Coryne code(s)Accession no., % identityFeatures not found in original descriptions; sensitivity to O129 disk
C. argentoratense 98-0075 (AF537589 )Blood culture, Ontario2000104 X83955 , 99.8Chymotrypsinase not produced; first report from blood culture; mannose positive; O129 sensitive
C. bovis 99-0033 (AF537590 )Human blood culture, Ontario0101104 X84444 , 99.8Lipophilic; oxidase positive; API urea positive but conventional urea negative; β-galactosidase negative; fructose slowly fermented; O129 sensitive
C. confusum 99-0145 (AF537591 )Breast abscess, Alberta3100004 Y15886 , 99.6CAMP positive; tyrosine negative; TBSA detected as cellular fatty acid; O129 resistant
C. coyleae (8)93-0786, 96-0224, 97-0083, 97-0171 (AF537592 ) 98-0010, 98-0066, 98-0068, 99-02464 blood, 3 urine, 1 abscess; 3 from British Columbia; 3 from Manitoba; 1 each from Ontario and Saskatchewan2 each of 2100104, 6100304, and 2100304; 1 each of 4100304 and 6100004 X96497, b >98.5Urine as clinical source not previously cited; for O129, 6 of 8 strains ND, remaining 2 strains resistant
C. durum (5)b81-0379, 86-0376, 91-0086, 98-0165, 99-0047 (AF537593 )2 sputum, 2 blood, 1 neck abscess; 2 from Saskatchewan; 1 each from Quebec, Alberta, Ontario3440125, 2440125 (ND for 1981, 1986, 1991 strains) Z97069 , ≥99.299-0047, nitrate negative, lactose positive, β-galactosidase positive; for O129, 3 of 5 strains ND, remaining 2 strains sensitive
C. falsenii 97-0205 (AF537594 )Blood, Ontario2101104 Y13024 , 100Yellowish pigment observed which did not intensify with time; conventional esculin negative but API esculin positive; both conventional and API urea positive, delayed (29); O129 sensitive
C. glucuronolyticum (11)79-0685, 90-0199, 93-0676, 93-0709, 93-0735, 94-0190, 94-0425, 96-0032, 96-0275, 98-0013 (AF537595 ), 98-0098 (AF537596 )4 blood, 2 peritoneal fluid, 1 prostate fluid, 1 disk fluid, 3 unknown; 3 from Ontario, 2 from British Columbia; 1 each from Alberta, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; 3 from Spain2241325, 6201705, 2241725, 3200505, 2200705, 7240703, 6600705, 6241725, 2201325, 2200725, 3201105 X86688 , ≥98.3Recovery from blood cultures, peritoneal fluid, or disk fluid not previously described for C. glucuronolyticum (14) or junior synonym C. seminale (6, 23); for O129, 9 of 11 strains ND, remaining 2 strains sensitive
C. imitans (6)89-0572, 93-0726, 98-0019, 00-0068, 00-0109, 01-0063 (AF537597 )5 blood culture, unknown; 2 from Ontario; 1 each from Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Seville, Spain3 of 3100325; 1100325, 2100325, 0100325 Y09044 , >99.3Blood culture isolates not previously described (12); 4 of 6 strains nitrate positive by conventional and API Coryne but 2 negative by both methods; 6 of 6 strains resistant to O129
C. kroppenstedtii (4)87-0354, 96-0162, 97-0060, 00-0244 (AF537598 )Breast abscess, lung biopsy, sputum, blood culture; 3 from Ontario, 1 from British Columbia2040104, 2040105, 0101104, 1987 sample ND Y10077 , >99.5Lipophilic; conventional esculin may be negative, but strains were esculin positive with API Coryne system; TBSA detected; for O129, 2 of 4 strains ND, remaining 2 strains sensitive/PICK>
C. mucifaciens (23)N85-0494, 87-0360, 87-0436 (AF537599 ), 88-0085, 88-0977, 92-0106, 93-0528, 94-0282, 95-0019, 95-0186, 95-0290, 95-0369, 96-0217, 97-0088, 97-0096, 97-0097, 97-0158, 97-0167, 97-0216, 98-0057, 99-0203, 00-0064, 01-0118 (AF537600 )10 blood, 3 abscess or wound, 2 peritoneal fluid, 1 each breast cellulitis, knee, hand, nipple discharge, dialysis fluid, paraspinal tissue biopsy, inguinal hernia and sac, unknown; 9 from Ontario, 6 from British Columbia, 4 from Alberta, 1 each from Manitoba, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Saskatchewan14 of 23 had API Coryne data: 3 of 2000104, 2 each of 2000004 and 6100104, 1 each of 0000004, 2100004, 2100104, 2000105, 6000004, 6100105, and 6100125 Y11200 , ≥98.0All 23 had mucoid or extremely mucoid, yellow or yellowish colonies; all were urease negative; 01-0118 was only slightly mucoid, slightly beta-hemolytic; maltose and sucrose were positive by both API (6100125) and conventional means (see also text); for O129, 15 of 23 strains ND, remaining strains sensitive
Closest to C. mucifaciens, smooth white colonies97-0160 (AF537601 )Blood, Ontario2101104 Y11200 , 98.3cUrea positive; colony smooth, not mucoid or yellow; O129 resistant
C. riegelii (4)95-0198, 97-0139, 98-0154, 99-0185 (AF537602 )2 adult blood culture, 1 cord blood, 1 urine; 2 from Manitoba, 1 each from Saskatchewan and British Columbia3 of 2001224; 2101224 Y14651 , ≥99.8First report of recovery from adult or cord blood cultures; for O129, 2 of 4 strains ND, remaining 2 strains sensitive
C. simulans (2)81-0613d (AF537603 ), 00-0186 (AF537604 )1 bile, 1 blood, Quebec, Alberta3000125 AJ012837 , ≥99.8Both nitrate and/or nitrite positive, 1981 strain maltose positive; for O129, ND; 00-0180 catalase negative, O129 sensitive
C. sundsvallense (2)93-0639e (AF537605 ), 99-0121 (AF537606 )Draining sinus, Ontario; blood culture, British Columbia2001004, 2101125 Y09655 , ≥99.6Close relationships between C. sundsvallense and C. thomssenii, described further in text; O129 ND for 1993 strain, 99-0121 sensitive
C. thomssenii 97-0130 (AF537607 )Air sample0101004 AF010474 , 99.9Neither NAG nor PYZ detected (33), sucrose negative, DNase negative; O129 ND
Black-pigmented Corynebacterium sp. (2)91-0032, 92-0360 (AF537608 )Vaginal swab, Ontario; vulval ulcer, Nova Scotia0000125 AF220220 , 99.8Both had adherent black-pigmented colonies, both O129 sensitive
  • a All identifiers refer to accession numbers for Health Canada's Special Bacteriology section of the NML. ND, not done; NAG, n-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase; PYZ, pyrazinamidase; TBSA, tuberculostearic acid. No specimens were received from the Yukon, Northwest, or Nunavut Territory. Where all strains from a single taxon group had been sequenced, the percent identity shown is the lowest value obtained, with others being higher with respect to percent identity to the GenBank accession number for the reference strain of the species.

  • b 81-0379, 86-0376, and 91-0086 were described briefly in reference 21, with the original identification being most like C. matruchotii; 16S rRNA gene sequencing data described in reference 21 but not as yet deposited in GenBank.

  • c GenBank sequence contained a large number of ambiguous base pairs, reducing degree of match; 16S rRNA gene sequence for 97-0160 over 1,463 bp with respect to accession no. Y11200 , after ambiguous base pairs were edited.

  • d NML 81-0613 was originally identified as “resembling CDC group G-1”; it was characterized in brief by Riegel et al. (22, 27) as strain LCDC 81-0613 and described as a unique taxon with characteristics like those found in the genus Corynebacterium.

  • e 93-0639, from a draining sinus, was further described in reference 4.