TABLE 3

Selected bivariate associationsa

CharacteristicValue(s) for GNRsValue(s) for K. pneumoniae
ColsColrP valueColsColrP value
No. of patients28, 5121284, 55768
Mean (SD) age (yr)63.1 (19.3)65.4 (18.5)0.16662.7 (18.4)69.1 (16.9)0.004
% of male patients47.4570.0349.758.80.134
% of patients by race0.080.054
    White52.351.649.745.6
    Asian8.89.49.87.4
    Black10.917.212.023.5
    Latino21.514.122.416.2
    Other6.47.86.17.4
Mean (SD) BMI (kg/m2)25.8 (6.7)25.6 (7.4)0.94626.4 (7.4)25.5 (8.7)0.564
% of patients admitted from health care facility14.345.7<0.00113.255.9<0.001
% of patients in hospital (RRMC vs SMH)65.756.10.1986453.80.283
Median (IQR) log no. of days to culture0.69 (−1.35, 2.31)1.57 (−0.44, 3)<0.0010.86 (−1.27, 2.38)1.06 (−0.77, 2.82)0.029
Proportion of cases hospital acquired0.4630.5160.2370.4870.5150.647
% of patients:
    In ICU at time of culture20.333.6<0.00121.532.40.014
    With any ICU stay during index hosp.40.361.2<0.00143.168.3<0.001
    For whom current isolate is carbapenem resistant7.871.1<0.0016.388.2<0.001
    With prior isolation of carbapenem-resistant GNR13.247.7<0.00112.757.4<0.001
    With an indwelling urinary catheter43.8760.00244750.01
    Ventilated during index hosp.32.465.1<0.00133.468.3<0.001
    With tracheostomy present on day of culture12.130.2<0.0018.524.4<0.001
    With tracheostomy present on admission516.3<0.0013.319.5<0.001
    With advanced ventilation on day of culture2451.2<0.00125.151.2<0.001
Median (IQR) Elixhauser score16 (7, 27)21 (11, 28)0.00519 (9, 29)21.5 (11, 31)0.021
% of patients with the following:
    Congestive heart failure20.5180.47720.820.60.969
    Arrhythmia42.756.30.00243.263.2<0.001
    Neurologic disease29.356.3<0.00129.864.7<0.001
    Chronic pulmonary disease25.429.70.272427.90.449
    Liver disease26.5250.7043329.40.527
    Lymphoma4.44.70.8623.82.90.726
    Metastatic cancer10.65.50.0611.35.90.161
    Nonmetastatic cancer23.412.50.00426.613.20.013
    Wt loss19.932<0.00122.335.30.011
    Electrolyte disorder61.672.70.01166.676.50.088
    Deficiency anemia13.214.10.77714.514.70.963
    Drug abuse7.25.50.44884.40.274
    Solid organ transplant19.121.10.55920.616.20.367
    Bone marrow transplant1.61.60.9911.300.345
    Renal failure15.324.20.00516.829.40.006
    Cystic fibrosis1.96.3<0.001000.863
    HIV infection0.80.80.9920.51.50.292
    Alcohol use22.215.90.15422.521.40.868
    Tobacco use5.65.50.9725.59.40.347
Vital signs on day of culture
    Maximum temp (C)99.7 (1.6)99.5 (1.8)0.29299.7 (1.8)99.6 (2.3)0.774
    Maximum pulse (beats/min)104.3 (23)108.6 (21.3)0.078105.4 (23.5)111.5 (24.3)0.089
    Maximum respiratory rate (breaths/min)27.4 (9.8)28.7 (8.8)0.22127.4 (9.7)28.8 (8.4)0.373
    Minimum SBP (mm Hg)101.2 (21.7)93.7 (21)<0.001100.1 (22)92.3 (24.3)0.01
    Minimum DBP (mm Hg)58.2 (12.3)54.6 (10.6)0.00657.7 (12.3)54.5 (12.8)0.073
    Minimum MAP72.4 (14.3)67.6 (13.4)0.00171.8 (14.3)67.1 (16)0.022
% of patients with septic shock20.631.30.00322.332.40.047
% of patients with hypotension21.2320.00122.932.40.034
Median (IQR) or mean (SD) lab results on day of culture
    WBC count (109/liter)12.4 (8.6, 17.4)14.3 (9.8, 20.1)0.03412.3 (8.3, 17.5)14.7 (9.8, 20.1)0.008
    Hemoglobin concn (mmol/liter)9.8 (8.5, 11.3)9.2 (8, 10.1)<0.0019.6 (8.4, 11.1)9.3 (8.2, 10.2)0.002
    Hematocrit (%)30.1 (26.3, 34.6)28.2 (25.2, 31.8)<0.00129.5 (25.7, 33.9)28.5 (25.4, 31.8)0.009
    Platelet count (109/liter)201 (124, 288)215 (123, 317)0.31190 (106, 273)209 (130, 297)0.349
    Sodium concn (mmol/liter)137.3 (5.5)137.6 (5.9)0.55137.2 (5.6)138.2 (6.7)0.159
    Potassium concn (mmol/liter)4.1 (0.6)4.1 (0.7)0.2764.1 (0.6)4.1 (0.7)0.915
    Chloride concn (mmol/liter)102.4 (6.5)101.8 (7.2)0.205102.7 (6.7)102.7 (8.7)0.948
    Bicarbonate concn (mmol/liter)24.5 (4.8)25.2 (5.4)0.11223.7 (4.7)24 (4.5)0.612
    Anion gap (mmol/liter)10.4 (4)10.7 (5.2)0.34710.8 (4.3)11.5 (5.6)0.162
    Creatinine concn (μmol/liter)1.4 (1.3)1.6 (1.4)0.0481.4 (1.3)1.7 (1.4)0.042
    BUN concn (mmol/liter)28.4 (22.8)36.6 (26.3)<0.00129.5 (23.1)40.5 (27.2)<0.001
    GFR (ml/min)71 (39, 100)61 (31, 100)0.08167 (37, 100)62 (31.5, 100)0.069
    Glucose concn (mmol/liter)135.3 (57.1)139.5 (61)0.433137.8 (60.9)141.5 (69)0.674
    Magnesium concn (mg/dl)1.7 (0.3)1.7 (0.3)0.3991.7 (0.3)1.7 (0.3)0.859
    Calcium concn (mmol/liter)8.6 (0.9)8.7 (1)0.1198.5 (0.9)8.6 (1)0.427
    Phosphorus concn (mmol/liter)3.3 (1.2)3.4 (1.3)0.1713.3 (1.2)3.5 (1.2)0.187
    AST concn (U/liter)69.8 (363.5)51.6 (97.6)0.60776.8 (336.1)65.6 (128.6)0.801
    ALT concn (U/liter)52 (187.7)47.7 (87.7)0.81458.6 (178)59.4 (109.2)0.983
    Alkaline phosphatase concn (ng/ml)149.9 (168)217.5 (361.3)<0.001157.3 (178.2)260.7 (465.2)<0.001
    aPTT (s)22.7 (15.3)20.9 (13.5)0.2323.3 (15.9)22.1 (13.8)0.604
    INR1.3 (0.6)1.3 (0.3)0.4341.4 (0.7)1.3 (0.4)0.814
    Lactate concn (mmol/liter)20.5 (22.5)19.6 (22)0.76623.3 (24.4)22 (24.8)0.797
    D-dimer concn (ng/ml)3,021 (2,518)2,773 (2,699)0.6862,979 (2,621)2,821 (2,474)0.85
    Prealbumin concn (g/liter)14.1 (8.1)14.1 (7.9)0.93513.5 (8)12.6 (6.9)0.568
    Protein concn (g/liter)6.1 (1.1)6.1 (1.1)0.7845.9 (1)6 (1.1)0.877
    Fibrinogen concn (g/liter)327.2 (180.2)334.6 (174.1)0.79312.5 (177.3)326 (175.1)0.711
Median (IQR) no. of days since last dose of:
    Any antibiotic0 (0, 5)0 (0, 0)0.0140 (0, 14)0 (0, 0)0.004
    An aminoglycoside100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)<0.001100 (100, 100)100 (73, 100)<0.001
    An antipseudomonal carbapenem100 (100, 100)100 (8, 100)<0.001100 (100, 100)100 (16, 100)<0.001
    Ertapenem100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)<0.001100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)<0.001
    A fluoroquinolone100 (100, 100)100 (29, 100)0.039100 (100, 100)100 (42, 100)0.236
    A penicillin100 (2, 100)21 (0, 100)0.002100 (0.5, 100)27.5 (0, 100)0.086
    An anti-MRSA agent60 (0, 100)2 (0, 42)<0.00158 (0, 100)1 (0, 49)<0.001
    Colistin100 (100, 100)100 (63, 100)<0.001100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)<0.001
    Aztreonam100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)0.705100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)0.876
    Carbapenem (any)100 (100, 100)60 (0, 100)<0.001100 (100, 100)100 (0, 100)<0.001
    A beta-lactam0 (0, 83)0 (0, 17)0.0413 (0, 100)0 (0, 19)0.011
    An acid suppressant0 (0, 100)0 (0, 0)0.0140 (0, 88.5)0 (0, 0)0.332
    A probiotic100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)<0.001100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)<0.001
    A steroid100 (20, 100)100 (13, 100)0.876100 (19.5, 100)100 (54, 100)0.515
    Chemotherapy100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)0.99100 (100, 100)100 (100, 100)0.723
    An immunosuppressant100 (0, 100)100 (0, 100)0.582100 (0, 100)100 (0, 100)0.811
    A blood product100 (100, 100)100 (11, 100)0.002100 (40, 100)100 (11, 100)0.172
  • a BMI, body mass index; RRMC, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center; SMH, Santa Monica UCLA Hospital; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile range; hosp., hospitalization; advanced ventilation, either noninvasive mask ventilation or endotracheal intubation; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; MAP, mean arterial pressure; WBC, white blood cell; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; GFR, race-adjusted glomerular filtration rate; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; aPTT, activated prothrombin time; INR, international normalized ratio; antipseudomonal carbapenem, meropenem, imipenem, or doripenem.