TABLE 1

Characteristics of patients with R027 Clostridioides difficile infection

VariableNo./total no. (%) or median value (IQR)a for group in which:
MLVA was obtained (n = 450)MLVA was not obtained (n = 33)
Age (years)74.4 (63.4–83.1)67.1 (50.5–77.0)
Sex
    Female209 (46.4)11 (33.3)
    Male241 (53.6)22 (66.7)
Charlson comorbidity index
    0–3247 (54.9)18 (54.6)
    4–6140 (31.1)9 (27.3)
    ≥763 (14.0)6 (18.2)
Antimicrobial exposureb401 (89.1)28 (84.9)
    Cephalosporins244 (54.2)12 (36.4)
    Fluoroquinolones181 (40.2)11 (33.3)
    Carboxy-ureidopenicillins85 (18.9)9 (27.3)
    Macrolides-clindamycin83 (18.4)8 (24.2)
    Antistaphylococcal-aminopenicillins71 (15.8)2 (6.1)
CDI diagnosis methodc
    Conventional toxins A+B EIA243 (54.0)25 (75.8)
    GDH+toxin A detection97 (21.6)1 (3.0)
    Rapid toxins A+B EIA89 (19.8)7 (21.2)
    Cytotoxicity assay21 (4.7)
Origin of CDI
    Hospital onset-HCFAd375 (83.3)26 (78.8)
    Community onset-HCFA37 (8.2)2 (6.1)
    Community acquired38 (8.4)5 (15.2)
CDI treatment
    Metronidazole (p.o. or i.v.)e347 (77.1)23 (71.9)
    Vancomycin45 (10.0)3 (9.4)
    Metronidazole and vancomycin36 (8.0)3 (9.4)
    None19 (4.2)3 (9.4)
CDI outcomes
    All-cause 30-day mortality61/445 (13.7)3/32 (9.4)
    CDI-associated 30-day mortality31/441 (7.0)
    cCDIf51/442 (11.5)2/32 (9.4)
    Recurrence of CDIg146/440 (33.2)12/32 (37.5)
  • a IQR, interquartile range.

  • b Each patient could have received more than one class of antimicrobials within 2 months of enrollment.

  • c TechLab C. difficile Tox A/B IITM kit was used in all Ontario centers. Samples from patients in Quebec centers were mostly tested by Biosite Diagnostics Triage Micro C. difficile panel (64%), Premier Toxins A&B Meridian Bioscience (22%), ImmunoCard Toxins A&B, Meridian Bioscience (12%), cytotoxin assay (10%), or a combination of tests (1%). EIA, enzyme immunoassay; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase.

  • d HCFA, health care facility associated.

  • e p.o., per os; i.v., intravenous.

  • f cCDI defined as one or more of the following: admission to an intensive care unit for complications associated with CDI, colonic perforation, toxic megacolon, colectomy or hemicolectomy, or CDI was the cause or contributed to death within 30 days after enrollment.

  • g Recurrence was defined by the presence of diarrhea and C. difficile toxin or compatible endoscopy or prescription of an empirical CDI treatment at least 48 h after the completion of the last CDI treatment.