TABLE 3

Factors associated with cCDI in univariate and multivariate logistic regression

FactorNo. cCDI/total no. (%)Crude ORa (95% CI)P valueAOR (95% CI)b
MLVA clustersc
    MC-13/69 (4.4)0.34 (0.10–1.14)0.0810.40 (0.11–1.49)
    MC-38/53 (15.4)1.36 (0.59–3.14)0.4751.22 (0.43–3.48)
    MC-108/50 (16.0)1.42 (0.61– 3.30)0.4121.30 (0.47–3.62)
    MC-other32/276 (11.8)ReferenceReference
Comorbidity with chronic heart disease
    No21/239 (8.8)Reference
    Yes30/203 (14.8)1.80 (0.99–3.26)0.052
Charlson comorbidity index
    0–322/242 (9.1)Reference
    4–622/138 (15.9)1.90 (1.01–3.57)0.047
    ≥77/62 (11.3)1.27 (0.52–3.13)0.600
Previous exposure to fluoroquinolones
    No16/189 (8.5)Reference
    Yes35/252 (13.9)1.74 (0.93–3.26)0.081
Heart rate (beats/min)
    ≤9020/292 (6.9)ReferenceReference
    >9031/146 (21.2)3.67 (2.01–6.70)<0.0012.80 (1.39–5.62)
Respiratory rate (breaths/min)
    ≤2031/365 (8.5)ReferenceReference
    >2019/72 (26.4)3.86 (2.04–7.33)<0.00012.25 (1.03–4.90)
WBCd (109/liter)
    <45/24 (20.8)5.07 (1.60–16.12)0.0065.77 (1.56–21.31)
    4–11.911/223 (4.9)ReferenceReference
    12–19.915/117 (12.8)2.83 (1.26–6.39)0.0121.88 (0.74–4.79)
    ≥2020/66 (30.3)8.38 (3.76–18.68)<0.0014.05 (1.67–9.82)
Serum albumin (g/liter)
    ≤2522/110 (20.0)7.75 (1.76–34.17)0.007
    26–3520/198 (10.1)3.48 (0.79–15.33)0.099
    >352/64 (3.1)Reference
    Missing7/70 (10.0)3.44 (0.69–17.23)0.132
BUNe (mmol/liter)
    <79/214 (4.2)ReferenceReference
    7–10.96/71 (8.5)2.10 (0.72–6.13)0.1731.86 (0.56–6.14)
    ≥1131/109 (28.4)9.05 (4.12–19.88)<0.0016.64 (2.79–15.78)
    Dialysis0/12
    Missing5/36 (13.9)3.67 (1.16–11.68)0.0273.03 (0.80–11.38)
CRPf (mg/liter)
    <5010/141 (7.1)Reference
    50–149.913/149 (8.7)1.25 (0.53–2.96)0.608
    ≥15016/44 (36.4)7.49 (3.08–18.22)<0.001
    Missing12/108 (11.1)1.64 (0.68–3.95)0.272
Procalcitonin (ng/ml)
    <0.515/245 (6.1)Reference
    ≥0.524/89 (27.0)5.66 (2.81–11.42)<0.001
    Missing12/108 (11.1)1.92 (0.87–4.25)0.109
Severe CDI at enrollment
    No13/247 (5.3)Reference
    Yes38/183 (20.7)4.72 (2.43–9.15)<0.001
  • a OR, odds ratio.

  • b AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • c MC, Manhattan coefficient.

  • d WBC, white blood cell count.

  • e BUN, blood urea nitrogen.

  • f CRP, C-reactive protein.