TABLE 3

Estimated disease prevalence and sensitivity and specificity of using serotype-specific qPCR, sputum culture, and UAD to diagnose VTPP by BLCM analysisa

Serotype-specific pneumococcal DNA load cutoff value (no. of copies/ml)Disease prevalenceSerotype-specific qPCRQuellung reactionbUADYouden index of PCR
Sensitivity (%)Specificity (%)Sensitivity (%)Specificity (%)Sensitivity (%)Specificity (%)
≥10313.0 (8.3–18.8)89.9 (71.5–99.7)96.1 (92.2–99.4)45.2 (26.9–65.1)99.5 (98.2–100)75.0 (54.1–92.4)97.9 (95.0–99.9)0.860
≥10412.9 (8.3–18.5)90.2 (71.2–99.7)96.9 (93.4–99.7)45.8 (27.5–65.8)99.5 (98.2–100)75.6 (55.4–92.4)97.9 (95.1–99.9)0.871
≥10512.1 (7.5–17.8)87.7 (63.9–99.7)97.5 (94.3–99.8)49.0 (28.7–70.2)99.5 (98.3–100)75.6 (55.1–92.3)97.2 (94.0–99.8)0.852
≥10610.7 (6.5–16.0)86.0 (61.4–99.6)98.7 (96.5–99.9)51.4 (30.7–72.6)99.1 (97.5–99.9)82.0 (62.9–95.6)97.0 (93.7–99.9)0.847
≥1079.9 (5.8–15.3)84.0 (55.4–99.6)99.0 (97.0–100)56.0 (32.7–78.2)99.1 (97.5–99.9)81.7 (62.3–95.7)96.3 (92.6–99.6)0.830
≥1087.7 (3.9–13.4)78.5 (43.2–99.3)98.7 (96.8–99.9)61.4 (31.6–87.6)98.3 (96.2–99.6)91.7 (72.4–99.8)95.3 (91.2–99.5)0.772
≥1097.7 (3.4–14.3)35.6 (13.8–64.6)98.6 (96.7–99.8)67.8 (33.6–97.5)98.5 (96.3–99.9)86.9 (61.7–99.6)94.9 (90.4–99.4)0.342
  • a qPCR, quantitative PCR; UAD, serotype-specific urinary antigen detection assay; BLCM, Bayesian latent class model. Values in parentheses are 95% credible intervals.

  • b Determined by conventional sputum culture and by use of the Quellung reaction's bacterial load cutoff value of 1.0 × 105 CFU/ml.