TABLE 1

Main characteristics of the study population (n = 68)

CharacteristicaFinding
Age at diagnosis (median [range]) (yr)54 (5–89)
Male (n [%])42 (61.7)
Underlying conditions for nocardiosis (n [%])b
    Corticosteroid27 (39.7)
    Immunosuppressive treatment27 (39.7)
    Chronic bronchopulmonary disease or asthma27 (39.7)
    Solid organ transplantation14 (20.5)
    Allogeneic HSCT14 (20.5)
    Primary immunodeficiencyc9 (13.2)
    HIV infection7 (10.2)
    Autologous HSCT4 (5.8)
Comorbidities (n [%])
    Diabetes mellitus (n = 66)10 (15.1)
    Neutropenia (n = 64)d2 (3.1)
SXT prophylaxis (n [%])25 (36.7)
Type of clinical sample for Nocardia PCR testing (n [%])
    Respiratory samples
        BAL fluid sample40 (58.8)
        Bronchial sampling specimen7 (10.2)
        Sputum sample6 (8.8)
        Lung biopsy specimen2 (2.9)
    Other specimens
        Abscess specimen5 (7.3)
        Cutaneous biopsy specimen3 (4.4)
        Pleural fluid sample2 (2.9)
        CSF sample2 (2.9)
        Lymph node specimen1 (1.4)
PCR result (n [%])
    Positive32
        Positive for N. farcinica14 (43.7)
Clinical/radiological presentation (n [%])
    Pulmonary61 (89.7)
    Disseminated disease15 (22)
    Cutaneous or muscular10 (14.7)
    Cerebral6 (8.8)
    Deep-seated abscess4 (5.8)
    Othere8 (11.7)
Duration of symptoms before sampling (median [range]) (days) (n = 57)30 (1–730)
Outcome of death at 6 mo (n [%]) (n = 67)10 (14.7)
  • a BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HSCT, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; SXT, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  • b Each patient could have several underlying conditions.

  • c Primary immunodeficiencies included chronic granulomatous disease (n = 3), defect of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) axis (n = 2), severe combined immunodeficiency (n = 2), lymphohistiocytosis (n = 1), and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 1).

  • d Defined as polymorphonuclear cell counts of <500 cells/mm3.

  • e Other includes lymph node (n = 4), bone (n = 2), blood (n = 1), eye (n = 1), and liver (n = 1) involvement.