Epidemiological and clinical features and outcomes in Nipah virus infectionsa

Feature or outcomeRegion
Age and occupationMainly adult pig farm workersAdults, children, and health care workers
SpreadBat-to-pig, pig-to-humanDirect bat-to-human infection by consumption of date palm juice and fruits contaminated by bats; possibility of bat-to-domestic animal-to-human spread
TransmissionHuman-to-human occasionalHuman-to-human spread
Respiratory involvementMalaysian cases (14–29%); 2 out of 11 patients in Singapore had pneumonia without encephalitisCough (62%) and respiratory difficulty (69%); chest radiographs with acute respiratory distress syndrome in some patients
EncephalitisSegmental myoclonus seen in 32–54% of casesSegmental myoclonus not reported
MRIDisseminated small, high-signal-intensity lesion hallmark of MRIConfluent high-signal brain lesion in limited MRI
Relapsed and late-onset encephalitisAbout 5–10%Delayed-onset neurological abnormalities in 4 out of 22 patients in a follow-up study
Persistent neurological deficitsAbout 20%About 30%
  • a Adapted from Sherrini and Tan (6).