TABLE 1

Comparison of characteristics of patients (n = 82) with a second episode of CDI

DemographicNo. of casesaOR (95% CI)P value
Relapse (n = 51)Reinfection (n = 31)
Age (median, range)64 (29–87)64 (18–93)1.0 (0.97, 1.02)0.57
Male gender24 (47.1)14 (45.2)1.1 (0.4, 2.6)0.87
Black race13 (25.5)9 (29.0)0.8 (0.3, 2.3)0.73
Comorbidity
    Modified Charlson index (median, range)5 (0–11)4 (0–16)1.0 (0.9, 1.1)0.92
    Chronic renal insufficiency17 (33.3)9 (29.0)1.2 (0.5, 3.2)0.69
    Diabetes20 (39.2)12 (38.7)1.0 (0.4, 2.6)0.96
    Diverticulosis9 (17.6)5 (16.1)1.1 (0.3, 3.7)0.86
    Infection32 (62.7)17 (54.8)1.4 (0.6, 3.4)0.48
    Ischemic vascular disease21 (41.2)17 (54.8)0.6 (0.2, 1.4)0.23
    Inflammatory bowel disease2 (3.9)4 (12.9)0.3 (<0.1, 1.6)0.15
    Immunocompromised host23 (45.1)16 (51.6)0.8 (0.3, 1.9)0.57
    Lung disease13 (25.5)14 (45.2)0.4 (0.2, 1.1)0.07
    Malignancy20 (39.2)5 (16.1)3.4 (1.1, 10.2)0.03
    Neurologic disorder3 (5.9)7 (22.6)0.2 (<0.1, 0.9)0.04
    Obesity6 (11.8)1 (3.2)4.0 (0.5, 34.9)0.21
    Abdominal surgery24 (47.1)14 (45.2)1.1 (0.4, 2.6)0.87
Medication use (during 1st episode)
    Metronidazole as CDI treatment34 (69.4)22 (71.0)0.9 (0.3, 2.5)0.88
    Non-CDI antibiotic34 (66.7)26 (83.9)0.4 (0.1, 1.2)0.09
    Antimotility (excluding opiates)8 (16.3)2 (6.5)2.8 (0.6, 14.3)0.21
    Antacid17 (34.7)6 (19.4)2.2 (0.8, 6.4)0.14
    PPI28 (57.1)16 (51.6)1.2 (0.5, 3.1)0.63
    Opiate(s)30 (61.2)10 (32.3)3.3 (1.3, 8.6)0.01
    Probiotic(s)17 (34.7)16 (51.6)0.5 (0.2, 1.2)0.14
    Tube feeding (12 wk prior to 2nd episode)19 (37.3)15 (48.4)0.6 (0.3, 1.6)0.32
Exposures (following 1st episode)
    Healthcare facility since discharge for previous episode44 (86.3)27 (90.0)0.7 (0.2, 2.9)0.62
    Homeb13 (25.5)5 (16.7)1.7 (0.5, 5.4)0.36
    Antibiotic(s) (outpatient/outside hospital)25 (50.0)22 (73.3)0.4 (0.1, 1.0)0.04
    Antimicrobial(s) (12 wk prior to 2nd episode)40 (81.6)29 (93.5)0.3 (<0.1, 1.5)0.15
Characteristics of index case
    Infection with BI/NAP1/027 strain29 (56.9)8 (25.8)3.8 (1.4, 10.1)0.008
    High (>3) CD prognosis score9 (17.6)6 (19.4)0.9 (0.3, 2.8)0.85
    Radiologic abnormality25 (49.0)10 (32.3)2.0 (0.8, 5.1)0.14
    No. (range) of days between positive cultures40 (17–402)90 (18–1,260)1.0 (0.99, 1.00)0.01
    Median (range) no. of days of hospitalization15 (0–257)10 (0–122)1.0 (0.99, 1.02)0.45
  • a Data in parentheses represent percentages except where otherwise indicated.

  • b Data exclude patients exposed to rehabilitation and skilled-nursing facilities or other hospitals prior to discharge.