Table 2

Biomarker sample positivity rates

AssayNo. of positive results/total (%)% difference in positivity: case vs. control (P value)% difference in positivity between assays (P value)
CasesControlsAssaysCasesControls
GM ELISA145/495 (29.3)1/308 (0.3)29 (0.0001)aGM vs WBb4.3 (0.1515)−5.3 (0.0001)a
WB PCR128/490 (26.1)17/300 (5.7)20.4 (0.0001)aWB vs serumc0.7 (0.8794)4.3 (0.0149)a
Serum PCR118/467 (25.3)5/287 (1.7)23.6 (0.0001)aSerum vs GMd−4.1 (0.1859)1.4 (0.2123)
  • a Statistically significant difference.

  • b A total of 486 samples from cases and 300 samples from controls were tested by WB PCR and GM ELISA.

  • c A total of 458 samples from cases and 281 samples from controls were tested by WB PCR and serum PCR.

  • d A total of 466 samples from cases and 287 samples from controls were tested by serum PCR and GM ELISA.