Table 3

Patient positivity using individual and combinations of biomarker assays

AssayPositivity resultsaP valueb
Cases (n = 47)Controls (n = 31)
No. positive% positive (95% CI)No. positive% positive (95% CI)
GM3880.9 (67.5–89.6)13.2 (0.6–16.2)0.0001
WB PCR4085.1 (72.3–92.6)1135.5 (21.1–53.1)0.0001
Serum PCR3778.7 (65.1–88.0)516.1 (7.1–32.6)0.0001
Combination testingc
    GM/GM2348.9 (35.3–62.8)0/310 (0–11.3)0.0001
    GM/WB3268.1 (53.8–79.6)00 (0–11.3)0.0001
    GM/serum2859.6 (45.3–72.4)00 (0–11.3)0.0001
    WB/WB2246.8 (33.3–60.8)26.5 (1.8–20.7)0.0002
    WB/serum2859.6 (45.3–72.4)13.2 (0.6–16.2)0.0001
    Serum/serum2451.1 (37.2–64.7)00 (0–11.3)0.0001
  • a Positivity in cases was significantly greater than that in controls for all assays and combinations assessed.

  • b P value calculated for difference in positivity between cases and controls.

  • c As an example, the combination GM/GM means that a first positive test had to be confirmed by a second positive test within 11 days.