Table 4

The individual and combined diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, WB, and serum PCR

AssayPerformance value (% [95% CI])aLR+bLRDORc
SensitivitySpecificityPPVNPV
GM80.9 (67.5–89.6)96.8 (83.8–99.4)97.4 (86.8–99.6)76.9 (61.7–87.4)25.30.20126.5
WB PCR85.1 (72.3–92.6)64.5 (47.0–78.9)78.4 (65.4–87.5)74.1 (65.4–87.5)2.40.2310.4
Serum PCR78.7 (65.1–88.0)83.9 (67.4–92.9)88.1 (75.0–94.8)72.2 (56.0–84.2)4.90.2519.6
Combination testingd
    GM/GM48.9 (35.3–62.8)100 (89.0–100)100 (85.7–100)56.4 (43.3–68.7)>4890.51>958.9
    GM/WB68.1 (53.8–79.6)100 (89.0–100)100 (89.3–100)67.4 (53.0–79.1)>6810.32>2,128.1
    GM/serum59.6 (45.3–72.4)100 (89.0–100)100 (87.9–100)62.0 (48.2–74.1)>5960.40>1,490
    WB/WB46.8 (33.3–60.8)93.5 (79.3–98.2)91.7 (74.2–97.7)53.7 (40.6–66.3)7.20.5712.6
    WB/serum57.4 (43.3–70.5)96.8 (83.8–99.4)96.4 (82.3–99.4)60.0 (46.2–72.4)17.90.4440.7
    Serum/serum53.2 (39.2–66.7)100 (89.0–100)100 (86.7–100)58.5 (45.1–70.7)>5320.471,131.9
  • a PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value.

  • b LR, likelihood ratio.

  • c DOR, diagnostic odds ratio.

  • d As an example, the combination GM/GM means that a first positive test had to be confirmed by a second positive test within 11 days.