Table 3

Characteristics of the 434 patients with or without PJI

CharacteristicValue for patient groupP value
Patients with aseptic failure (total n = 290)Patients with prosthetic joint infection (n = 144)
Age (yrs)0.53
    Median6866
    Range24–9131–92
Gender [n (%)]0.14
    Male131 (45.2)76 (52.8)
    Female159 (54.8)68 (4..2)
Reason for primary arthroplasty [n (%)]0.43
    Osteoarthritis208 (71.7)108 (75)
    Bone fracture or trauma44 (15.2)19 (13.2)
    Inflammatory joint disordera20 (6.9)8 (5.5)
    Avascular necrosis12 (4.1)3 (2.1)
    Congenital abnormality2 (0.7)4 (2.8)
    Otherb4 (1.4)2 (1.4)
Second (or more) revision [n (%)]0.004
    No177 (61.0)67 (46.5)
    Yes113 (39.0)77 (53.5)
Hardware removal [n (%)]1.00
    Partial14 (4.8)6 (4.2)
    Complete276 (95.2)138 (95.8)
Risk factor for PJI [n (%)]0.002
    Diabetes mellitus35 (12.1)33 (22.8)0.003
    Long-term use of immunosuppressive therapyc2 (0.7)4 (2.8)0.10
Site of arthroplasty [n (%)]0.87
    Knee181 (62.4)91 (63.2)
    Hip109 (37.6)53 (36.8)
Antecedent antimicrobial therapy [n/total no. evaluated (%)]24/284 (8.4)58/134 (43.3)<0.0001
Diagnostic criterion for PJI
    Acute inflammation [n/total no. evaluated (%)]0/290 (0)90/112 (80.4)
    Purulence [n (%)]0112 (77.8)
    Sinus tract [n (%)]039 (27.1)
Preoperative laboratory findings [n/total no. evaluated (%)]
    Blood leukocyte count > 10 × 109/literd,e17/231 (7.4)21/123 (17.1)0.005
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 30 mm/hd,f44/266 (16.5)83/135 (61.5)<0.0001
    Serum C-reactive protein > 10 mg/literd,f53/266 (19.9)109/136 (81.2)<0.0001
    Synovial fluid leukocyte count > 1,700/μlf,g33/140 (23.6)63/71 (88.7)<0.0001
    Synovial fluid differential > 65% neutrophilsf,g15/137 (10.9)61/71 (85.9)<0.0001
  • a Includes rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

  • b Includes bone neoplasia, arthrofibrosis, polymyalgia rheumatica, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and acromegaly.

  • c Includes corticosteroids, methotrexate, and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.

  • d The cutoff was taken from Bernard et al. (23).

  • e Within one preoperative week.

  • f Within six preoperative months.

  • g The cutoff was taken from Trampuz et al. (24), a study that excluded patients with underlying inflammatory joint diseases or connective tissue diseases and evaluated only knee arthroplasties.