Table 1

Details of studies of diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia by using BinaxNOWa

First author and yr (reference[s])bPatient characteristics and countryS. pneumoniae pneumonia case definitionMean age (yrs)% male/% female% with indicated severity score% who received prior antibiotics% immuno suppressed
Sordé 2011 (24)Hospitalized adults ≥16 yrs old with CAP, admitted; SpainBlood+, pleural fluid+, or PCR (pleural fluid)+Sputum+6467/3358.2 (PSI IV/V)20.3
Segonds 2010 (26)Hospitalized adults >18 yrs old with BinaxNOW-SP test; FranceBlood+ or pleural fluid+Sputum+, BAL+, or BinaxNOW-SP+
Garcia-Suarez 2007 (32)Adults with serious community-acquired bacterial infection, S. pneumoniae pneumonia subgroup; SpainBlood+ or pleural fluid+Sputum+ or tracheal aspirate+6064/36
Lasocki 2006 (36)Adults with CAP, admitted to ICU; FranceBlood+, sputum+, or microbiology+ from respiratory tractND6966/3446 (SAPS-II; median)70
Tzeng 2006 (37)Adults with RTI symptoms; TaiwanBlood+, pleural fluid+, or sputum+ND
Lauderdale 2005 (38)Hospitalized adults >16 yrs old with CAP; TaiwanBlood+, pleural fluid+, or (sputum+ and BinaxNOW-SP+)Sputum+ or BinaxNOW-SP+5664/36161.2
Ishida 2004 (4)Adults >15 yrs old hospitalized with CAP; JapanBlood+ or pleural fluid+Sputum+6565/3527 (PSI IV/V)
Róson 2004 (40)Adults with CAP, admitted to hospital, nonsevere immunosuppression; SpainBlood+ or sputum+ND6671/2935 (PSI IV/V)18
Strålin 2004 (41)Adults with CAP, admitted to hospital; DenmarkBlood+, sputum+, or nasopharynx+ND7153/4739 (PSI IV/V)27
Butler 2003 (42)Adults with febrile respiratory illness, subgroup with CAP; USBlood+ or culture+ from normally sterile body siteSputum+ and CXR consolidation4570/30Excluded
Marcos 2003 (6)Adults ≥18 yrs old with CAP, admitted to hospital; SpainBlood+, pleural fluid+, TBAS+, or BAL+Sputum+5079/2121
Burel 2001 (44)Adults with CAP, admitted to hospital; FranceBlood+, sputum+, BAL+, tracheal aspirate+, pleural fluid+, or latex agglutination+ND
Shibli 2010 (23)Adults ≥18 yrs old with CAP, admitted to hospital; IsraelNDND5858/42Excluded
Charles 2008 (28)Hospitalized adults >18 yrs old with CAP; AustraliaBlood+, sputum+, or BinaxNOW-SP+Sputum+ (without Gram stain+)6561/3953.5 (PSI IV/V)31Excluded
Weatherall 2008 (30)Adults >14 yrs old with CAP; AustraliaNDND79 (median)56/4440 (PSI IV/V)26
Diaz 2007 (31)Hospitalized adults ≥16 yrs old with CAP; ChileBlood+ or BinaxNOW-SP+Sputum+6652/4861 (PSI IV/V)33Excluded
Kobashi 2007 (33)Adults >15 yrs old with CAP, admitted to hospital; JapanBlood+, pleural fluid+, or sputum+ND6271/2926 (PSI IV/V)4512
Andreo 2006 (34)Adults ≥16 yrs old with CAP, admitted to hospital; SpainBlood+, pleural fluid+, transthoracic needle aspirate+, or BinaxNOW-SP+Sputum+5970/3026Excluded
Ercis 2006 (35)Adults with CAP, admitted to hospital; TurkeyBlood+ or sputum+ND18–86 (range)64/367
Genne 2006 (3)Adults >18 yrs old with CAP, admitted to hospital; SwitzerlandBlood+ or (sputum+ or microbiology+ from respiratory tract)ND6857/43PSI mean score of 106
Van der Eerden 2005 (39)Hospitalized adults ≥18 yrs old with CAP; DenmarkBlood+, pleural fluid+, or pleural fluid antigen+Sputum+ or BinaxNOW-SP+6454/4644.3 (PSI IV/V)26Excluded
Farina 2002 (43)Adults with CAP, hospitalized; ItalyBlood+ or respiratory specimen+ND
Murdoch 2001 (45)Adults with CAP, admitted to hospital; New ZealandBlood+ or sputum+ND68 (median)51/4976
Johansson 2010 (22, 53)Hospitalized adults with CAP; SwedenBlood+, pleural fluid+, BAL+, or BinaxNOW-SP+Sputum+6151/4922
Perello 2010 (25)Hospitalized adults with HIV; SpainBlood+ND4365/3548 (Apache-II score of ≥12100
Smith 2009 (27)Hospitalized adults with blood+ or blood CAP; UKBlood+Clinical CAP with specific features63 (median of 67)
Hohenthal 2008 (29)Hospitalized adults ≥16 yrs old with CAP; FinlandBlood+ or pleural fluid+BinaxNOW-SP+ or sputum+5052/4823 (PSI IV/V)29Excluded
  • a Designations: blood+, positive blood culture; sputum+, positive Gram stain and/or sputum culture; pleural fluid+, positive culture from pleural fluid; nasopharynx+, positive culture from the nasopharynx; BAL+, positive culture from bronchioalveolar lavage fluid; respiratory+, positive culture from any respiratory sample; TBAS+, tracheobronchial aspiration; BinaxNOW-SP+, positive urinary BinaxNOW-SP test (to be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report sufficient detail to separate these results into true and false positives). Abbreviations: CXR, chest X-ray; ND, not defined; RTI, respiratory tract infection; SAPS, simplified acute physiology score; PSI, pneumonia severity index (54).

  • b Studies are ordered by date of publication within reference standard category.