TABLE 1

Clinical and phenotypical attributes of K. oxytoca isolatesa

Isolation siteDiagnosisbN and/or OcToxindCountry of isolatione
Stool (40)AAHC (16), diarrhea/colitis of other causes (11), IBD (3), asymptomatic carrier (7), follow-up/AAHC (1), asymptomatic carrier/UTI (1), NA (1)N (9), O (25), NA (6)Positive (31), Negative (9)JPN (1), USA (1), NED (2), AUT (30), ESP (1), HKG (3), GER (2)
Respiratory tract (21)Nosocomial pneumonia/VAP (13), COPD (2), cystic fibrosis (1), pneumonia (2), pharyngitis (2), pneumothorax (1)N (15), O (6)Positive (3), Negative (18)AUT (21)
Urinary tract (4)UTI (4)N (2), O (2)Negative (4)AUT (4)
Blood (2)AAHC with bacteremia (1), bacteremia (1)O (2)Positive (1), Negative (1)AUT (2)
Skin/mucous membranes (7)DFS (4), CSSTI (2), oral abscess (1)O (7)Positive (4), Negative (3)AUT (7)
  • a The number of isolates within a given category is shown in parentheses.

  • b AAHC, antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; UTI, urinary tract infection; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DFS, diabetic foot syndrome; CSSTI, complicated skin and skin structure infection.

  • c Isolates were classified as nosocomial (N) when infection occurred 48 h after hospitalization. O, outpatient; NA, information not available.

  • d Cytotoxicity was assessed via an MTT-based cell culture assay (6).

  • e JPN, Japan; NED, Netherlands; AUT, Austria; ESP, Spain; HKG, Hong Kong; GER, Germany.