TABLE 4

Characteristics of deceased and nondeceased patients with proven and probable chronic Q fever

CharacteristicNondeceased (n = 174)Deceased (n = 41)PeDefinitely or probably deceased due to chronic Q fever (n = 28)Pe
Male (n [%])133 (76)30 (73)0.6721 (75)0.83
Age (mean [SD]) (yr)66.5 (13)72.1 (12)0.00472.5 (13)0.010
Risk factor for chronic Q fever (n [%])119 (68)30 (73)0.4020 (71)0.62
Proven chronic Q fever (n [%])116 (67)35 (85)0.02027 (96)0.002
Endocarditis (n [%])63 (36)12 (29)0.287 (25)0.21
    Valve prosthesis or plasty31 (18)7 (17)0.924 (14)0.70
Vascular infection (n [%])94 (54)28 (68)0.02422 (79)0.005
    Vascular prosthesis50 (29)7 (17)0.364 (14)0.25
Other focus (n [%])6 (3)00.1900.28
No focus (n [%])20 (11)3 (10)0.3100.05
Acute presentation with chronic Q fever (n [%])35 (20)18 (44)0.00216 (57)<0.001
Acute Q fever episode (n [%])45 (26)13 (32)0.778 (29)0.66
    Adequately treated with antibioticsa,b34 (76)9 (69)0.914 (50)0.27
    Risk factor for chronic Q feverb22 (50)10 (77)0.0766 (75)0.18
    Prophylactic therapyb,c2 (9)1 (10)0.7900.47
Adequate antibiotic treatment of chronic Q fever (n [%])145 (83)35 (85)0.9623 (82)0.69
Surgical treatment of chronic Q fever (n [%])49 (28)19 (46)0.02517 (61)<0.001
    Emergency surgical treatmentd21 (43)15 (79)0.00613 (76)0.013
  • a Proven effective antibiotic treatment regime for at least 10 days.

  • b Percentages and P values estimated on all chronic cases with an acute Q fever episode only.

  • c Doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for at least 6 months.

  • d Percentages and P values estimated on all chronic cases who underwent surgical treatment only.

  • e P values estimated with log-rank test.