TABLE 3

Factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, by crude analysis

Species and characteristicTotaln (%)OR (95% CI)P
Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Sampling period
        Phase 158195 (16.4)1.00
        Phase 227319 (7.0)0.38 (0.23, 0.64)<0.001
    Lives in periurban settlement
        No67180 (11.9)1.00
        Yes17833 (18.5)1.68 (1.08, 2.63)0.021
    Consumes areca nut
        No16111 (6.8)1.00
        Yes693103 (14.9)2.38 (1.24, 4.56)0.007
    Woman generates income
        No43371 (16.4)1.00
        Yes42143 (10.2)0.58 (0.39, 0.87)0.008
Haemophilus influenzae
    Sampling period
        Phase 158136 (6.2)1.00
        Phase 22730.7 (2)0.11 (0.02, 0.47)<0.001
    Partner generates income
        No28021 (7.5)1.00
        Yes57417 (3.0)0.38 (0.20, 0.73)0.003
Staphylococcus aureus
    Sampling period
        Phase 1581162 (27.9)1.00
        Phase 227342 (15.4)0.47 (0.32, 0.69)<0.001
    Woman generates income
        No433121 (27.9)1.00
        Yes42183 (19.7)(0.46, 0.87)0.005