TABLE 1

Demographics, injury circumstances, and trauma characteristics of combat-injured U.S. service members (2009-2011)

CharacteristicaResults for:P value
IFIb: case patients (n = 54)Non-IFI: control patients (n = 69)
Demographics
    Age (median [IQR])22.9 (21.7−26.2)23.2 (21.3−25.2)0.85
    Male (no. [%])54 (100)68 (99)1.00
Injury circumstances (no. [%])
    BLAST injury54 (100)69 (100)
    Foot patrol50 (93)61 (88)1.00
LRMC ISS (median [IQR])c21 (18−25)21 (17−24)0.43
Traumatic amputations (no. [%])
    Lower extremity46 (85)59 (86)1.00
        Above/through the knee42 (78)55 (80)0.80
        Below the knee4 (7)4 (6)0.73
    Upper extremity8 (15)4 (6)0.13
    Both lower/upper extremity7 (13)3 (4)0.10
Fractures (no. [%])0.87
    None13 (24)14 (20)
    Closed5 (9)6 (9)
    Open ± closed36 (67)49 (71)
Blood productsd transfused within first 24 h (no. [%])0.50
    <10 units2 (4)4 (6)
    10−20 units17 (31)28 (40)
    >20 units35 (65)37 (54)
Shock index (no. [%])e0.36
    <116 (30)20 (29)
    1−1.4917 (31)28 (40)
    ≥1.535 (65)37 (54)
Admittance to LRMC ICU53 (98)64 (93)0.23
Admittance to U.S. MTF ICU52 (96)59 (86)0.07
  • a ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile range; ISS, injury severity score; LRMC, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center; MTF, military treatment facility.

  • b IFI, invasive fungal wound infection.

  • c Wounded U.S. military personnel are evacuated from the combat zone to the LRMC, the U.S. military hospital in Germany, prior to transfer to the United States.

  • d Packed red blood cells plus whole blood.

  • e Shock index: heart rate/systolic blood pressure.