TABLE 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of adults tested within 48 h of hospital arrival

CharacteristicaValue in patients positive for:
Influenza virus onlyNon-influenza viruses
Season 1 (n = 158)Season 2 (n = 54)P valueSeason 1 (n = 40)Season 2 (n = 85)P value
Age (yr), mean ± SD (range)55 ± 22 (18–101)59 ± 22 (23–91)0.2863 ± 21 (19–91)57 ± 23 (18–95)0.13
CCI, median (IQR)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)0.872 (1–4)2 (0–3)0.051
Male sex, n (%)68 (43)21 (39)0.5917 (43)35 (41)0.89
Race or ethnic group, n (%)0.950.044
    White77 (49)25 (46)21 (53)44 (52)
    Black25 (16)8 (15)7 (18)12 (14)
    Hispanic27 (17)12 (22)3 (8)12 (14)
    Asian13 (8)4 (7)5 (13)1 (1)
    Other or unknown18 (11)6 (11)4 (10)16 (19)
Asthma or reactive airway disease, n (%)25 (16)13 (24)0.177 (18)11 (13)0.50
Immunosuppressed status, n (%)b38 (24)11 (20)0.5820 (50)34 (40)0.29
Previous antibiotic treatment, n (%)34 (22)16 (30)0.2313 (33)24 (28)0.63
Duration of symptoms (days), median (IQR); n3 (2–5); 1563 (2–5)0.864 (2–7)4 (3–7); 830.30
Symptoms, n (%)
    Cough142 (90)48 (89)0.8435 (88)75 (88)0.91
    Increased work of breathing83 (53)32 (59)0.3932 (80)56 (66)0.11
Vital signs within 24 h of testing, n (%)
    Temp ≥ 38°C69 (44)30 (56)0.1418 (45)25 (29)0.087
    Heart rate ≥ 100 bpm100 (63)31 (57)0.4423 (58)42 (49)0.40
    Respiratory rate > 2442 (27)16 (30)0.6519 (48)28 (33)0.12
    Hypoxia (pulse oximetry < 93%)42 (27)14 (26)0.9320 (51)35 (41)0.29
    Hypotension (SBP ≤ 90 mm Hg)21 (13)8 (15)0.7814 (35)18 (21)0.099
Emergency severity index, median (range); n3 (1–5); 1453 (2–4); 500.333 (2–4); 363 (2–5); 780.15
Respiratory viral testing only test performed, n (%)16 (10)3 (6)0.411 (3)4 (5)1
CBC performed, n (%)139 (88)50 (93)0.4539 (98)79 (93)0.43
WBC (103/μl), median (IQR); n7.7 (5.6–10.3); 1246.5 (5.5–8.3); 480.0327.9 (5.4–12.4); 378.3 (5.5–11.6); 760.74
    ANC (103/μl), median (IQR)6 (4.4–8.6)5.2 (3.3–7.1)0.0596 (4.9–9.6)5.5 (3.7–9.4)0.40
    ALC (103/μl), median (IQR)0.8 (0.5–1.1)0.7 (0.4–1.1)0.210.8 (0.4–1.3)1 (0.6–1.7)0.17
Hospitalization in past 90 days, n (%)34 (22)11 (20)0.8617 (43)20 (24)0.030
Admitted to intensive care unit, n (%)c15 (9)8 (15)0.2813 (33)16 (19)0.091
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)c7 (4)4 (7)0.487 (18)6 (7)0.074
Died during hospitalization, n (%)c2 (1)1 (2)13 (8)5 (6)0.71
  • a IQR, interquartile range; CBC, complete blood count; WBC, white blood cell count; ANC, absolute neutrophil count; ALC, absolute lymphocyte count; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • b Immunosuppressed status if any of the following were present: history of AIDS, HIV, leukemia, lymphoma, metastatic cancer, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, corticosteroid use (equivalent of ≥5 mg prednisone) for at least 2 weeks before testing, immunosuppressant use for at least 2 weeks before testing, or immunosuppressant use during admission.

  • c Variable related to current emergency department visit/hospital admission.