TABLE 1.

Prevalence of virulence factor genes among 110 Escherichia coli clinical isolates from cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and/or primary bacteremia

CategoryGeneaGene prevalence (no. [%] of isolates) P valueb (B2 vs non-B2)
All isolates (n = 110)B2 isolates (n = 53)Non-B2 isolates (n = 57)
Adhesins papAH 50 (45)33 (62)17 (30)<0.001
papC 50 (45)34 (64)16 (28)<0.001
papEF 45 (41)35 (66)10 (17)<0.001
papG 41 (37)34 (64)7 (12)<0.001
sfa/foc 23 (21)21 (40)2 (3)<0.001
focG 12 (11)11 (21)1 (2)0.002
iha 33 (30)15 (28)18 (32)
fimH 102 (93)52 (98)50 (88)
hra 39 (35)21 (40)18 (32)
Toxins hlyA 23 (21)22 (41)1 (2)<0.001
cnf1 20 (18)20 (38)0<0.001
sat 27 (24)17 (32)10 (17)
pic 17 (15)12 (23)5 (9)0.045
vat 50 (45)47 (89)3 (5)<0.001
Siderophores iroN 48 (44)35 (66)13 (23)<0.001
fyuA 78 (71)52 (98)26 (46)<0.001
ire 33 (30)22 (41)11 (19)0.01
iutA 50 (45)25 (47)25 (44)
Miscellaneous kpsM II66 (60)46 (87)20 (35)<0.001
cvaC 24 (22)16 (30)8 (14)0.04
usp 55 (50)52 (98)3 (5)<0.001
traT 64 (58)35 (66)29 (51)
ompT 77 (70)53 (100)24 (42)<0.001
iss 27 (24)15 (28)12 (21)
ibeA 11 (10)11 (21)00.001
  • a The 25 genes listed are those found in ≥10% of the 110 isolates. Definitions: papAH, P fimbria structural subunit; papC, P fimbria assembly; papEF, P fimbria tip pilins; papG, P fimbria adhesin; sfa/foc, S and F1C fimbriae; focG, F1C fimbriae; iha, putative adhesin-siderophore; fimH, type 1 fimbriae; hra, heat-resistant agglutinin; hlyA, α-hemolysin; cnf1, cytotoxic necrotizing factor; sat, secreted autotransporter toxin; pic, autotransporter protease; vat, vacuolating autotransporter toxin; iroN, salmochelin receptor; fyuA, yersiniabactin system; ire, siderophore receptor; iutA, aerobactin; kpsM II, group 2 capsule; cvaC, colicin V; usp, uropathogenic specific protein; traT, serum resistance associated; ompT, outer membrane protease; iss, increased serum survival; ibeA, invasion of brain endothelium.

  • b The prevalence rates of the virulence genes among B2 versus non-B2 isolates were compared by the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. P values are shown only when P was ≤0.05.