TABLE 1

Use of various methods for the diagnosis of GAE due to Acanthamoeba spp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris and PAM due to Naegleria fowleri

Disease (total cases reviewed)Diagnostic modalityMethod of analysis% of cases (no. of cases)a
GAE due to Acanthamoeba spp. (n = 46)Brain biopsyMicroscopy15.21 (7)
PCR4.34 (2)
IFA6.52 (3)
Culture4.34 (2)
CSFMicroscopy17.39 (8)
Culture23.9 (11)
PCR4.34 (2)
PostmortemMicroscopy13.04 (6)
IFA21.7 (10)
PCR6.52 (3)
Skin biopsy2.17 (1)
GAE due to B. mandrillaris (n = 29)Brain biopsyMicroscopy20.68 (6)
PCR10.34 (3)
IFA13.79 (4)
CSFPCR3.44 (1)
PostmortemMicroscopy10.34 (3)
IFA20.68 (6)
Skin biopsy6.9 (8)
PAM due to N. fowleri (n = 11)PostmortemMicroscopy36.4 (4)
IFA18.2 (2)
PCR9.1 (1)
CSFMicroscopy18.2 (2)
Culture18.2 (2)
  • a The data are presented as percentages of cases reviewed in this study. Some cases may involve more than one diagnostic modality.