Table 2.

Characteristics and GS-PCR results of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from clinical sources

O:K serovar and yr of isolationNo. of strainsLocation of isolation or source of isolatePresence of genea:GS-PCR resultRepresentative strain(s)b
tdhtrh1trh2Experimental no.Designation
O3:K6
 1980–19818Bangladesh+1U-5474*
 1982–19938Int. travel.c +2AQ4901*(THA)
 19831Int. travel.c +3AQ3810*(SING)
 1985–19924Int. travel.c +4AQ4037 (MVD)
 19931Taiwan5DOH272*
 1995–19965Int. travel.d ++6KX-V225 (THA)
 1996–199822Bangladesh++7AN-8373
 1996–199826India++8VP81*
 19974Taiwan++9DOH958 15
 199736Laos++1097LVP2
 1997–199835Japan++11JKY-VP6*
 19981Japan+12FIHES98V1-32-4
 199820Thailand++13VP47
 19982Korea++14VP2
 199821United States++15BE-98-2062*
O4:K68
 1997–199923Int. travel.d ++16KX-V532 (THA)
 199812Bangladesh++17AN-5034*
 19987India++18VP232
 19985Japan++19OP-424
O1:KUTe
 1980–19986Bangladesh+
 19811Bangladesh+
 1986–19942Int. travel.c +
 1986–199516Int. travel.c,d ++
 1989–19947Int. travel.c ++
 19941India++
 1994–19962India
 1994–19982India+
 1996–19973India++
 1997–199811India++20VP185
 19981Bangladesh++21AN-16000*
 19982United States++
 19991Int. travel.d ++22KX-V737 (THA)
Other than O3:K6, O4:K68, and O1:KUT (26 serovars)
 1978–19996Int. travel.c,d +
 1981–19989Bangladesh+Y-27669*, AN-8917*
 1983–19935Int. travel.c ++
 19931Japan++
 1994–199828India+
 19961India++
 19961Korea++
 19971Taiwan+
 19971Taiwan
 19982India+
 19982India
 19982Thailand
 19981Thailand++
 19982United States++
 19981United States+
 19981United States
  • a +, present; −, absent.

  • b Experimental strain numbers (1 through 22) correspond to lane designations in Fig. 3 and 4. Asterisks indicate strains for which the toxRS sequence was submitted to the DDJB/EMBL/GenBank databases. For strains isolated from international travelers (Int. travel.), the travelers' origins are shown in parentheses, as follows: THA, Thailand; SING, Singapore; MVD, the Maldives.

  • c International traveler(s) arriving at Osaka Airport, Osaka, Japan.

  • d International traveler(s) arriving at Kansai Airport, Osaka, Japan.

  • e UT, untypeable.