TABLE 2

Use of various individual drugs for the treatment of GAE due to Acanthamoeba spp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris and PAM due to Naegleria fowleri

Drug or drug classa% of cases (no. of cases)
GAE due to Acanthamoeba (n = 46)GAE due to B. mandrillaris (n = 29)PAM due to N. fowleri (n = 11)
Nonspecific19.5 (9)20.7 (6)18.2 (2)
Miltefosine15.2 (7)13.8 (4)0
Pentamidine13 (6)31 (9)0
Sulfadiazine19.5 (9)34.5 (10)18.2 (2)
Flucytosine13 (6)24.1 (7)0
Macrolides (azithromycin or clarithromycin)17.4 (8)31 (9)0
Azoles41.3 (19)48.3 (14)18.2 (2)
Carbapenems4.3 (2)3.4 (1)0
Sulfonamides (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)34.8 (16)3.4 (1)0
Rifampin37 (17)6.9 (2)18.2 (2)
Chloramphenicol6.5 (3)09.1 (1)
Pyrimethamine2.2 (1)6.9 (2)9.1 (1)
Amphotericin B30.4 (14)10.3 (3)27.3 (3)
Glycopeptides (vancomycin)2.2 (1)00
Tetracyclines03.4 (1)0
  • a Nonspecific treatment included general measures to reduce intracranial pressure and inflammation (mannitol, decompressive craniotomy, and corticosteroids) and treatment for differential diagnosis (cephalosporins for bacterial meningitis). In cases of combinations of drugs, the therapeutic agents were calculated independently.