Table 2.

Geographic distributions of the major ribogroups and antibiotic resistance characteristics of the isolates of each clonal-transmission case

SpeciesRibogroupTotal no. of isolatesTotal no. of sitafloxacin- resistant isolatesCountry (or countries) of origin of the sitafloxacin-resistant isolates (no. of isolates)Country (or countries) of origin of the sitafloxacin-susceptible isolates (no. of isolates)Country, center, with clonal-transmission casesa (n)Antibiotics to which isolates belonging to clonal-transmission cases were resistantbPeriod of clonal transmission
Pseudomonas aeruginosa210-87-34341France (24), Greece (1), Italy (1), Poland (1), Portugal (6), Spain (2), Turkey (1), South Africa (5)Italy (1), The Netherlands (1)Portugal (6)AllJuly 1997–May 1998
France, hospital 1 (7)All but CAZMarch 1997–May 1998
France, hospital 2 (15)All but CAZ, IMI, and AMIKApril 1997–May 1998
210-88-22827France (2), Greece (4), Italy (12), Poland (4), Spain (2), Turkey (3)The Netherlands (1)Italy (8)AllApril 1997–August 1998
210-99-41814France (5), Turkey (9)Germany (1), Spain (1), Switzerland (1), United Kingdom (1)Turkey (9)AllMarch 1997–November 1997
210-88-51511France (7), Poland (4)France (1), Italy (1), Spain (2)None
210-87-488France (7), Germany (1)NoneNone
210-87-284Austria (1), Belgium (1), France (1), Spain (1)France (1), Portugal (1), Spain (1), United Kingdom (1)None
210-88-176France (6)Greece (1)None
210-87-865France (1), Greece (3), Poland (1)Turkey (1)None
210-99-263France (1), Turkey (1), South Africa (1)Italy (1), Switzerland (2)None
210-87-755France (2), Portugal (3)NoneNone
210-95-344France (4)NoneNone
Acinetobacterspp.210-41-35248Belgium (2), France (1), Germany (1), Greece (1), Poland (1), Portugal (1), Spain (39), Turkey (2)Greece (1), Portugal (1), Turkey (1), South Africa (1)Spain, hospital 1 (16)AllJanuary 1997–November 1998
NoneSpain, hospital 2 (20)All but IMIApril 1997–October 1998
210-64-62525Spain (25)NoneSpain, hospital 1 (25)AllApril 1997–November 1998
210-52-42424France (5), Italy (2), The Netherlands (2), Spain (15)NoneSpain, hospital 1 (11)All but IMIApril 1997–October 1997
210-60-21717Italy (14), Poland (1), Spain (1), South Africa (1)NoneItaly (14)All but IMIJanuary 1997–November 1998
210-52-71010France (4), Greece (4), Portugal (2)NoneNone
210-61-276Spain (6)Spain (1)None
210-110-354Poland (1), Spain (3)Spain (1)None
  • a Cases with at least six (for P. aeruginosa) or 11 (for Acinetobacter spp.) sitafloxacin-resistant isolates collected from the same hospital and belonging to the same ribogroup.

  • b CAZ, ceftazidime; IMI, imipenem; AMIK, amikacin.