Table 2.

Identification scheme for Actinomyces and closely related speciesa

Species and strain(s)PigmentationCatalase productionNitrate reductionCAMP testHydrolysis of:Production of:Fermentation of:
UreaEsculinα-Fucosidaseα-Glucosidaseβ- NAGβ-GalalactosidaseArabinoseMaltoseMannitolRaffinoseRhamnoseSucroseXyloseTrehalose
A. europaeus CCUG 32789AT+b+b++++b
A. funkei CCUG 42773T+ +c +d++++e+++
A. georgiae
 ATCC 49285T++++ww+++
 1 clinical strain++++++++
A. gerencseriae
 ATCC 23860T++++++f+f++f+
 12 clinical strainsv++++++wv
A. graevenitzii
 CCUG 27294T +g+++++
 9 clinical strains+vv++++wv
A. israelii
 ATCC 10049+++++++++++
 10 clinical strains++++++w+v+++
A. meyeri
 ATCC 35568T +h+ +i +i+++
 4 clinical strainsv++++++++
A. naeslundii
 ATCC 12104T+++++++++
 8 clinical strainsv+v++++++
A. neuii subsp. neuii CCUG 32252T++++++++jwj++j
A. neuii subsp. anitratus CCUG 32253T++ +k++++++++
A. odontolyticus
 ATCC 17929T++w+ +l +l +m +m +mw
 10 clinical strains++vvv+++++
A. radicidentis CCUG 36733T +n++w+++++++
A. radingae
 CCUG 32394T +o+++++++++
 5 clinical strains+++++v+++w+vv
A. turicensis
 CCUG 34269T+++++p
 5 clinical strains+v++++v
A. urogenitalis CCUG 38702T +q+++++wwrw++w
A. viscous
 ATCC 15987T++++++++
 6 clinical strains+++v+++v
Arcanobacterium bernardiae CCUG 33419T +s+ +tw+w
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum ATCC 9345T+Rev++++++
Arcanobacterium pyogenes CCUG 13230T +uv++ww++
Actinobaculum schalii CCUG 27420Tw++++++
  • a All enzyme reactions in this table are based on results obtained with Rosco diagnostic tablets; fermentation reactions are based on tests with PRAS biochemicals. The other footnotes describe the reactions that are discrepant compared with previously published data. Abbreviations ATCC, American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Va.; CCUG, Culture Collection, University of Gothenborg, Gothenborg, Sweden; +, positive reaction or result; −, negative reaction or result; w, weak reaction; v, variable reaction; Rev, reverse.

  • b In the original description (6), the type strain is nitrate, esculin, and xylose negative with the API CORYNE kit.

  • c In the original description (12), the strain is not reported to be CAMP test positive.

  • d In the original description (12), the strain is negative with API systems.

  • e In the original description (12), acid is not produced from l-arabinose with API systems.

  • f In the original description (10), the type strain does not ferment rhamnose or xylose and ferments raffinose.

  • g In the original description (19), the strain is nonpigmented.

  • h Wüst et al. (27) reported a negative reaction by the CAMP test.

  • i Schaal (22), in Bergey's manual, reports a negative reaction with the API ZYM system.

  • j In the original description (7), acid is produced from raffinose and trehalose but acid is not produced from l-rhamnose with the API 50CH system.

  • k In the original description (7), the strain is reported to be esculin negative with the API CORYNE kit.

  • l Schaal (22), in Bergey's manual, reports a negative reaction with the API ZYM kit.

  • m Johnson et al. (10) report a negative reaction with PRAS biochemicals.

  • n In the original description (4), the strain is not reported to be a pigment producer.

  • o Vandamme et al. (25) reported a negative CAMP test reaction.

  • p Vandamme et al. (25) reported a positive reaction with a tryptone soy broth plus horse serum (Oxoid) and a variable reaction with the API CORYNE kit.

  • q In the original description (16), the strain was not reported to be a pigment producer.

  • r Nikolaitchouk et al. (16) reported a positive reaction for d-raffinose with the API RAPID ID 32 STREP kit.

  • s In the original description (18), the strain was reported to have a negative reaction with the API ZYM kit.

  • t Funke et al. (6) and Lawson et al. (11) reported negative reactions (the test system was not traceable).

  • u Lawson et al. (11) reported a negative reaction.

  • v Lawson et al. (11) reported a positive reaction.