TABLE 2

A comparison of smartphone-based devices used in the diagnosis of parasites

CategoryMain device and technologyAdvantage(s)Limitation(s)Reference
Standalone smartphone technologyiPhoneRapid; avoids false-negative diagnosisValidated with only one study5
iPhone 5S + algorithmAutomated; reduces reporting errors; avoids false-negative diagnosisLower sensitivity than visual method6
iPhone 6S + smartphone application (app)Automated; reduces reporting errors; avoids false-negative diagnosisLower sensitivity than visual method7
Lens-mounted smartphone microscopyiPhone 4s + ball lensLow cost; portableSmall FOV; low sensitivity9, 10
iPhone 4S + reversed camera lensLow cost; portable; relatively larger FOVaIllumination and vignetting issues; field validation required11
Nokia Lumia 1020 + double convex objective lens + ImageJComposite imaging of eggs scattered on different focal planesLower resolution; field validation required12
Smartphone-assisted manual microscopyiPhone 5S + FoldscopeLow-cost; portable; high specificityLimited sensitivity; manual slide navigation issue13
iPhone 5S + CellScopeLow-cost; portable; high specificityLow sensitivity; manual slide navigation issue13, 14
Motorola ZN5 + LED + apertureLens-free and lightweight; avoids undesired artifacts caused by demosaicing algorithmsPowerful smartphone required to image holograms; field validation required15
Sony-Erickson U10i Aino + external lens + color filterFluorescent microscopy; large FOV; large depth-of-fieldField validation required16
Nokia N73 + lens assemblyWide-field imaging; allows both bright-field and fluorescent imagingField validation required17
iPhone 5S + Newton NM1 microscopeHandheld; portable; high specificityLimited sensitivity; relatively expensive; slide navigation issues18
Nokia candy bar models + light microscopeHigh quality imaging; image sharing facilityHeavy microscope4
iPhone 5S + polarized microscopic assemblyImproved contrast; time-saving; operable by less-skilled personnelField validation required; high-resolution lens required19
Smartphone-assisted automated microscopyNokia E71 or Sony Ericsson C905 + algorithmsAutomated; time-saving; high specificityImages from each device need separate validation20
iPhone 5s or Sony Experia Z3 or Nokia Lumia 1020 + ImageJAutomated; yields superior results to McMaster methodField validation required; fluorescent-labeling required21
Nokia Lumia 1020 + algorithmLarge FOV and sample load; automated; portableField-validation required22
HTC 1S or LG Nexus 5 + algorithm + appAutomated; high specificityLimited sensitivity23
Samsung Galaxy S + thermal cycler + MATLAB + ImageJAutomated; no need for sample preparationComplex data analysis; thermal cycler required24
iPhone 5S + reversed lens cell scope + algorithm + appAutomated video imaging; high sensitivity and specificity; no need for sample preparationRelatively complex design25
Smartphone-assisted microfluidic technologyiPhone 4 + Optofluidic device + Photoshop CS5Rapid; portable; high sensitivityExpertise required for data analysis; field validation required; fluorescent labeling required26
iPhone 4 + microfluidic deviceRapid; portable; small sample size requiredField validation required; DNA amplification required; relatively expensive27
  • a FOV, field-of-view.