Table 2.

Comparison of methods for diagnosis of respiratoryC. pneumoniae infection

ReferenceSampleaNo. of samplesSubject age range (yr)No. (%) of samples positive by the following detection test:Confirmation by MIF-serology (no. of samples positive/total no. of samples tested [%])
PCRCultureEIADFA
6Np, Th58 NSb10 (17)8 (14) NDcND6/9 (67)
10Np, Th, Sp1163–7930 (26)23 (20)26 (22)ND26/27 (96)
16Npa1089–1143 (45)NDNDNDND
17Ba104NS15 (14)4 (4)NDNDND
22Ba108NS12 (11)0 (0)NDND4/8 (50)
23Np136NS27 (20)31 (23)ND6/12d7/23 (30)e
24Ba385NS13 (3)3 (1)NDND3/13 (23)
26Th54NS8 (15)7 (13)NDND9/9 (100)
28Npa1,118NS1 (0.1)NDNDNDND
32Np10421–532 (2)1 (1)ND1/10/2 (0)
36fTh368NS15 (4)1 (0.3)NDNDND
42Npa1520–22 (1)NDNDNDND
59fUrs, Npa, Ba135NS19 (14)NDNDNDND
69Npa, Ba6832–904 (6)NDNDND3/4 (75)g
70Np237NS21 (9)NDNDNDND
71fGw1935–163 (2)ND0 (0)NDND
85Sp26<6510 (38)1/10 9/1010/107/10 (70)
86Npa71NS2 (3)NDNDNDND
87Np, Th, Sp15620–9331 (20)1 (0.6)NDND7/31 (23)
  • a Np, nasopharyngeal swab; Th, throat swab; Sp, sputum; Npa, nasopharyngeal aspirate; Ba, BAL specimen or bronchial aspirate; Urs, upper respiratory samples; Gw, gargled water.

  • b NS, not stated.

  • c ND, not done.

  • d Results are number of samples positive/number of samples tested.

  • e Only a single serum was available.

  • f Confirmation was performed by an alternative PCR method.

  • g Immunoglobulin A titer, ≥1/32.