TABLE 1

Smartphone-based devices for the diagnosis of parasites

CategoryParasite or vectorStageStudy locationStudy typeSample size(s)Sensitivity or detection limitbSpecificitybReference
Standalone smartphone technologyTaenia soliumCystIndiaField1NANA5
Plasmodium falciparumNAaUSALabNA21 parasites/μlNA6
P. falciparumNAUSALabNA1 nM (543 parasites/μl)NA7
Human tickNAUSANANANANA8
Lens-mounted smartphone microscopyAscaris lumbricoidesEggTanzaniaField19981%87%9
HookwormEgg14%89%9
Trichuris trichiuraEgg54%63%9
T. trichiuraEggCôte d'IvoireField164, 18031%71%10
Schistosoma mansoniEgg68%64%10
A. lumbricoidesEggUSALabNANANA11
A. lumbricoidesEggNew ZealandLabNANANA12
Smartphone-assisted manual microscopySchistosoma hematobiumEggGhanaField4956%93%13
S. hematobiumEgg68%100%13
S. hematobiumEggCôte d'IvoireField22636%100%14
S. mansoniEgg50%100%14
Giardia lambliaCystUSALabNANANA15
G. lambliaCystUSALabNANANA16
P. falciparumNAUSALabNANANA17
P. falciparumNACôte d'IvoireField22380%100%18
P. falciparumMixedUgandaLabNANANA4
P. chabaudiHemozoinUSALabNANANA19
Smartphone-assisted automated microscopyS. hematobiumEggSwedenLabNA79%100%20
Animal parasitesEggUSALabNANANA21
G. lambliaCystUSALabNA12 cysts/10 ml94 (50 cysts/10 ml)22
P. falciparumTrophozoitePortugalLab681%94%23
Trypanosoma cruziDNAUSALabNA24
Loa loaMicrofilariaCameroonField33100%94%25
Smartphone-assisted microfluidic technologyP. falciparumNAUSALabNA1 pg/ml26
Anopheles arabiensisDNAUSALabNANANA27
A. gambiaeDNANANA27
  • a NA, not available/applicable.

  • b Sensitivity and specificity percentages are given in comparison to to a conventional method, e.g., a standard microscope or manual identification; decimal points of these figures were rounded off.