TABLE 1.

Sources, lineages, and subtypes of the 66 representative isolates sequenced in this study

Group and isolatePrevious IDaSourceaLineageaSerotypeaRibotypea,eMVLSTb
Epidemic clone I (30)
    1981 Canada coleslaw outbreak* (WHOc, Health Canada)
        BL1301FSL J1-108HumanI4bDUP-1038B20
        BL1302FSL J1-107HumanI4dDUP-1038B20
        BL1303FSL J1-003HumanI4bDUP-1038B20
        BL1304FSL N3-008FoodI4bDUP-103820
    1985 California soft cheese outbreak* (WHO)
        BL1201FSL J1-002HumanI4bDUP-1038B20
        BL1202FSL J1-119HumanI4bDUP-1038B20
        BL1203FSL J1-110FoodI4bDUP-1038B20
    1983-1987 Switzerland soft cheese outbreak* (WHO)
        BL1101FSL J1-123HumanI4bDUP-1038B20
        BL1102FSL J1-126HumanI4bDUP-1038B20
        BL1103FSL N3-022FoodI4bDUP-1038B20
Epidemic clone II (30)
    1998 Sara Lee hot dog outbreak (CDC)
        BL2101H2444NAdI4bDUP-104419
        BL2102H3396NAI4bDUP-104419
        BL2103H6383NAI4bDUP-104419
    2002 U.S. turkey deli outbreak (CDC)
        BL2201J1838NAI4bDUP-1044A19
        BL2202J2230NAI4bDUP-1044A19
        BL2203J2685NAI4bDUP-1044A19
        BL2204J3006NAI4bDUP-1044A19
        BL2205J3033NAI4bDUP-1044A19
        BL2206J3200NAI4bDUP-1044A19
        BL2207J3238NAI4bDUP-1044A19
Epidemic clone III (30)
    2000 U.S. turkey deli outbreak* (CDC)
        BL3201FSL R2-603FoodII1/2aDUP-1053A1
        BL3202FSL R2-499FoodII1/2aDUP-1053A1
    1989 U.S. hot dog outbreak* (WHO)
        BL3101FSL N3-031FoodII1/2aDUP-1053A1
        BL3102FSL J1-101HumanII1/2aDUP-1053A1
Epidemic clone IV (30)
    1989 United Kingdom pate outbreak* (WHO)
        BL4101FSL J1-129HumanI4bDUP-1042B21
        BL4102FSL J1-116HumanI4bDUP-1042B21
        BL4103FSL N3-013FoodI4bDUP-1042B21
    1979 Boston vegetable outbreak
        BL4201FSL J1-220HumanI4bDUP-104221
Other outbreaks
    1983 Boston milk outbreak
        BL9101FSL J1-225HumanI4bDUP-1042B31
        BL9102FSL R2-578HumanI4bDUP-1042B31
        BL9103FSL R2-583HumanI4bDUP-1042B31
    2000 North Carolina soft cheese outbreak* (CDC)
        BL9201FSL R2-500FoodI4bDUP-1042B30
        BL9202FSL R2-501HumanI4bDUP-1042B30
    1987 Pennsylvania ice cream outbreak
        BL9301FSL J1-012HumanI4bDUP-1038B29
    1981 United Kingdom Carlisle outbreak
        BL9501FSL J1-105HumanII1/2aDUP-103033
    1994 Illinois chocolate milk outbreak* (WHO)
        BL9401FSL R2-502FoodI1/2bDUP-1051B32
        BL9402FSL R2-503HumanI1/2bDUP-1051B32
Nonoutbreak isolates
    BL0002FSL N1-014FoodII1/2aNA34
    BL0003FSL N1-011AEnvironmentalI1/2bNA35
    BL00063562Food environmentNANADUP-104136
    BL00073563Food environmentNANADUP-104136
    BL0026FSL J2-044AnimalI4bDUP-104237
    BL0027FSL N3-010FoodI4bNA38
    BL00283564Food environmentNANADUP-104136
    BL0029FSL F2-239FoodI1/2bDUP-1042C39
    BL0030FSL F2-601Human sporadicI4bDUP-1042B40
    BL0031FSL H1-030Food environmentNANADUP-1045B41
    BL0032FSL F2-293FoodI1/2bDUP-1031A42
    BL0033FSL S4-436EnvironmentNANADUP-1025A43
    BL0034FSL H1-051Food environmentNANADUP-1039C44
    BL0035FSL L3-151Food environmentNANADUP-1039A45
    BL0036FSL F2-032FoodII1/2aDUP-1045B46
    BL0037FSL F2-373FoodII1/2aDUP-1039C47
    BL0038FSL N4-588EnvironmentNANADUP-1045B48
    BL0039FSL R2-219Food environmentNANADUP-1062A49
    BL0040FSL F3-831Food environmentNANADUP-1045A50
    BL0041FSL S6-016EnvironmentNANANA51
    BL0042FSL F2-525Human sporadicIII4bDUP-1061A52
    BL0043FSL F2-663Human sporadicII1/2aDUP-1054C53
    BL0044FSL C1-387FoodII1/2aDUP-1039B45
    BL0045FSL F2-695Human sporadicIII4aDUP-1061A54
    BL0046FSL F2-655Human sporadicIIINADUP-1061A55
    BL00473569Food environmentNANADUP-103056
    BL00483571Food environmentNANADUP-103945
    BL00493580Food environmentNANADUP-106257
    BL00503583Food environmentNANADUP-102358
  • a Isolates and information (sources, serotypes, ribotypes, and pulsotypes) were obtained from the Cornell Food Safety Laboratory, the U.S. CDC, and a meat-processing plant. ID, identification.

  • b Sequence types were assigned according to methods reported previously by Zhang et al. (60).

  • c Health agencies that characterized the outbreaks are included in parentheses following the name of the outbreaks. Isolates from the outbreaks followed by an asterisk were designated by the ILSI North America as a standard set of isolates for validating molecular subtyping methods.

  • d NA, not available.

  • e Ribotyping pattern designations followed by a capital letter indicate subribotype (i.e., DUP-1053A is a subribotype of ribogroup DUP-1053).