TABLE 2.

Clinical signs and symptoms associated with the presence of C. trachomatis infection by multivariate analysis

Variable or clinical sign or symptomFemale patientsMale patients
Crude ORaP for crude ORAdjusted ORbP for adjusted ORCrude ORcP for crude ORAdjusted ORP for adjusted OR
Age group
    <30 yr vs ≥30 yr4.20 (1.76-10.1)0.00054.13 (1.88-9.07)0.0002
    <25 yr vs ≥25 yr2.71 (1.47-5.00)0.0011.23 (0.66-2.32)0.514
Patient-reported symptoms
    Symptomatic vs asymptomatic1.91 (1.04-3.50)0.0335.67 (2.81-11.5)<0.0001
    Dysuria4.28 (1.87-9.82)0.00023.92 (1.42-10.9)0.00868.27 (4.35-15.7)<0.00014.42 (1.51-12.1)0.0011
    Urethral itchingNA6.15 (1.80-21.0)0.001113.7 (2.96-63.0)0.0008
    Vaginal/urethral irritation0.14 (0.02-1.04)0.0262.17 (0.97-4.89)0.055
    Pelvic or abdominal pain2.63 (1.32-5.24)0.0043.39 (1.40-8.18)0.0066NA
Reported abnormal discharge
    Patient reported vs none3.38 (1.47-7.80)0.0045.50 (2.33-13.0)<0.0001
    Doctor reported vs none3.15 (1.33-7.45)0.0093.53 (1.29-9.61)0.01414.3 (3.82-53.5)<0.00017.60 (1.30-44.3)0.024
    Doctor or patient reported vs none7.37 (3.40-16.0)<0.00014.78 (1.99-11.5)0.000510.2 (4.58-22.8)<0.00014.27 (1.51-12.1)0.0063
Clinical signs
    PMNLs/HPF1.04 (1.02-1.07)0.00088.27 (4.35-15.7)<0.00014.42 (1.81-10.8)0.0011
    NSU or NSC vs neitherd3.71 (2.00-6.87)<0.00013.98 (1.87-8.47)0.000315.2 (7.07-32.6)<0.00017.56 (2.98-19.2)<0.0001
    Cervical contact bleeding13.2 (4.24-41.0)<0.000111.7 (2.28-60.5)0.0032NA
    Moist urethral meatusNA7.66 (3.17-18.5)<0.00015.95 (1.86-19.0)0.0027
Coinfections
    Molluscum contagiosum21.3 (3.8-119.5)<0.000153.0 (6.04-466)0.0003
    Genital warts2.15 (0.95-4.90)0.0626.11 (2.30-16.2)0.0003
    One or more infections1.86 (1.01-3.41)0.043
Traced STI contacts
    C. trachomatis contact13.3 (4.86-36.2)<0.00019.08 (2.50-32.9)0.00084.05 (1.43-11.5)0.004813.5 (3.32-54.8)0.0003
    NSU contact2.70 (1.11-6.54)0.023NA
  • a OR, odds ratio. Numbers in parentheses after odds ratios represent the 95% CI. NA, not applicable to gender.

  • b Only those variables that remained significant after adjustment for other variables in the model are included.

  • c Lack of data for the crude odds ratio is due to the low prevalence of the variable.

  • d NSU, nonspecific urethritis; NSC, nonspecific cervicitis.